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Roman Colosseum

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
ca. 1854-69
Medium: 
Oil on canvas, unfinished
Dimensions: 
Overall: 14 1/4 x 21 in. ( 36.2 x 53.3 cm )
Credit Line: 
Gift of Nora Durand Woodman
Object Number: 
1932.51
Marks: 
Inscription: Pencil on stretcher: "T. H. HOTCHKISS / ROME ITALY"
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1854
eMuseum Object ID: 
21661
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

The Course of Empire: Desolation

Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Highlight: 
Display this item in the highlights
Date: 
1836
Medium: 
Oil on canvas (relined)
Dimensions: 
Overall: 39 1/4 x 63 1/4 in. ( 99.7 x 160.7 cm ) Framed: 53 in. × 6 ft. 4 1/2 in. × 5 3/4 in. (134.6 × 194.3 × 14.
Description: 

Thomas Cole. The Course of Empire: Desolation, 1836. Oil on canvas, 39 1/4 x 63 1/4 in. New-York Historical Society, Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts.

Credit Line: 
Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts
Object Number: 
1858.5
Gallery Label: 

In the late 1820s the young Thomas Cole quickly built a successful career as a painter of Hudson River landscapes, but he harbored ambitions of turning the landscape form to a larger purpose. As early as 1827 he conceived a cycle of paintings that would illustrate the rise and fall of a civilization, and a few years later he began sketching and developing his ideas. The artist attempted unsuccessfully to persuade Robert Gilmor, a Baltimore patron, to commission the series, and in 1833 he secured a commission from New York merchant Luman Reed to paint a cycle of five paintings for the art gallery in his home. In the resulting series, The Course of Empire, Cole presented a cyclical view of history in which a civilization appears, matures, and collapses. The artist's distinctly pessimistic vision differed from that of many of his peers; in the early years of the United States' history, its future was considered limitless. Cole drew from a number of literary sources, such as Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and Byron's epic Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. The motto he attached to the series was taken from Byron's popular poem: "First freedom, then glory; when that fails, wealth, vice, corruption." The artist finally settled on a title in 1835, taken from Bishop George Berkeley's 1729 poem, "Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America," which begins "Westward the Course of Empire takes its way." Cole also drew upon paintings he had seen on his recent trip to Europe (1829-32), including the work of J.M.W. Turner and Claude Lorrain. The five paintings follow a dramatic narrative arc, anchored by the imperturbable mountain in the background, and expounded with rich and complex symbolic systems that illustrate this imaginary world's history, including the course of the sun across the sky, the changing relation of man to nature, the role of animals, the arts, and the military, and even the placement and character of his own signature. Luman Reed, Cole's generous patron, did not live to see the completion of the series. He died in June of 1836, but Reed's family encouraged Cole to complete the work. The series was exhibited to great acclaim in New York later that year. The Course of Empire, along with the rest of Reed's collection, became the core of the New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts. That group of works was donated to the New-York Historical Society in 1858, forming the foundation of its acclaimed collection of American landscape painting. For this last episode Cole described how "violence and time have crumbled the works of man, and art is again resolving into elemental nature. The gorgeous pageant has passed, the roar of battle has ceased - the multitude has sunk into the dust - empire is extinct." Perhaps the most original and certainly the most poetic of the five canvases, Desolation captures the exquisite stillness of a world without mankind; Cole wrote to his friend Asher B. Durand that he intended for the picture to "express silence and solitude." The sun is setting and nature is again reclaiming the landscape: a lizard crawls up a grand column at left that once supported a palace or temple, and herons nest atop it. A buck and doe are poised to drink near the water by the remains of a temple. Cole may have drawn inspiration for these ruins from those he observed on his trip to Europe in 1829-32. In his concluding statement of this grand series Cole showed "art resolving into elemental nature," and he applied this state even to himself. His signature at lower right appears upside down and incised into a stone that is partially overgrown with vegetation. This placement suggests the artist's own mortality and his eventual reunion with nature in death - the "C" in his name has already disappeared under the growth, signaling to the viewer that all the works of man will eventually be reclaimed by nature.

Provenance: 

Luman Reed, d. 1836; Mrs. Luman Reed, New York, 1836-44; New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts, 1844-58.

Bibliography: 

Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XII, No. 23, December 6, 1834, p. 179. Isham, Samuel, The History of American Painting, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1936, pp. 225-6. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIII, April 2, 1836, p. 318. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 17, October 22, 1836, p. 135. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 18, October 29, 1836, p. 142. Clark, Lewis Gaylord, ed. The Knickerbocker, Vol. VIII, No. 5, November, 1836, pp. 81, 630. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 19, November 4, 1836, p. 150. "Amusements," New York Commercial Advertiser, Vol. XXXIX, Friday, November 4, 1836, n.p. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 20, November 12, 1836, p. 158. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 27, December 31, 1836, p. 215. Poe, Edgar Allen, ed., "The New York Gallery of the Fine Arts," The Broadway Journal, I, February 15,1845, pp. 102-103. Bryant, William Cullen, Funeral Oration, occasioned by the Death of Thomas Cole, Delivered Before the National Academy of Design, New-York, May 4, 1848, New York, D. Appleton & Company, pp. 23-4, 26. Exhibition of the Paintings of the late Thomas Cole, at the Gallery of the American Art-Union, 1848, pp. 19-20. Noble, Louis Legrand, The Course of Empire, Voyage of life, and Other Pictures of Thomas Cole, N. A., With Selections from his Letters and Miscellaneous Writings: Illustrative of his Life, Character, and Genius, New York: Cornish, Lamport & Company, 1853, n.p. Stillman, W. J. & Durand, J. Eds., "The Artists of America," The Crayon, Vol. VII, No. 2, February 1860, pp. 45-6. Hone, Philip, The Diary of Philip Hone 1828-1851, New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1889, p. 236. Durand, John, The Life and Times of Asher B. Durand, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1894; Reprint, Hensonville, NY: Black Dome Press, 2007), p. 124. Caffin, Charles H., The Story of American Painting: The Evolution of Painting in America from Colonial Times to the Present, New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1907, pp. 66, 69-70. Mather, Frank Jewett, Morey, Charles Rufus, and Henderson, William James, The Pageant of America: The American Spirit in Art, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927, p. 43. Sweet, Frederick A. "Asher B. Durand, Pioneer, American Landscape Painter," The Art Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2, Spring, 1945, pp. 141, 153. Howe, Winifred E., A History of the Metropolitan Museum of Art with a Chapter on the Early Institutions of Art in New York. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946, pp. 62-7 Thomas Cole: One Hundred Years Later, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT 1948, pp. 10-1. Tunnard, Christopher, "Reflections on the Course of Empire and other Architectural Fantasies of Thomas Cole, N.A.," The Architectural Review, Vol. 104, December 1948, pp. 291-294. Davidson, Marshall, "Whither the Course of Empire?" American Heritage, October 1957, pp. 52-5, 58-61, 104. Flexner, James Thomas, That Wilder Image: The Painting of America's Native School from Thomas Cole to Winslow Homer, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962, pp. 49-58, 108, 354. McCoubrey, John, American Tradition in Painting, New York: G. Braziller, 1963, p. 65. Exhibition at Kennedy Galleries, New York, 1964, pp. 14, 26-7. Noble, Louis Legrand, The Life and Works of Thomas Cole, Hensonville, New York: Black Dome Press, 1964, pp. 103, 112, 129-131, 149-50, 155, 157-9, 164-74, 264, 268, 287. Wallach, Alan P., "The Origins of Thomas Cole's 'Course of Empire,'" M.A. Theses, Columbia University, 1965. Lawall, David B., Asher Brown Durand: His Art and Art Theory in Relation to His Times, partial fulfillment of requirements for PhD, Princeton, 1966, pp. 170-92, 288-9. Callow, James T., Kindred Spirits: Knickerbocker Writers and American Artists, 1807-1855, Durham, North Carolina, The University of North Carolina Press, 1967, p. 157. Annual II: Studies on Thomas Cole, An American Romanticist, Baltimore, Maryland: Baltimore Museum of Art, 1967, pp. 72-4. Wallach, Alan P., "Cole, Byron, and the Course of Empire," The Art Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 4, December 1968, pp. 375-9. Dunlap, William, A History of the Rise and Progress of The Arts of Design in the United States, A Reprint of the Original 1834 Edition with a New Introduction by James Thomas Flexner, Vol. 2, Part 2, New York: Dover Publications, 1969, p. 366. Baur, John I. H., The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge 1820-1910, New York: Arno Press, 1969, pp. 40-1. Parry, Elwood, Thomas Cole's "The Course of Empire:" A Study in Serial Imagery, PhD Dissertation, Yale, 1970, pp. 254-60. Glassie, Henry H., "Thomas Cole and Niagara Falls," The New-York Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. LVIII, No. 2, April 1974, p. 89. Novak, Barbara, "The Double-Edged Axe," Art in America, Vol. 64, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1976, pp. 44-50. New York State Museum, New York: The State of Art, Albany, New York: The New York State Museum, 1977, pp. 25, 30-1, and exhibition catalog, Mann, Maybelle, The American Art-Union, Jupiter FL: ALM Associates, c. 1977, pp. 15-7. Davidson, Abraham A., The Eccentrics and Other American Visionary Painters, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978, pp. 16-9, 138. Lynes, Russell, "Luman Reed: A New York Patron," Apollo, Vol. 107, No. 192, 1978, pp. 124-9. Cikovsky Jr., Nicolai, "'The Ravages of the Axe:" The Meaning of the Tree Stump in Nineteenth-Century American Art," The Art Bulletin, Vol. 61, No. 4, Dec., 1979, pp. 611-26. Craven, Wayne, "Luman Reed, patron: His Collection and Gallery," The American Art Journal, Vol. XII,, Spring 1980, pp. 43, 45, 50-6. Parry III, Ellwood C., "Thomas Cole's Ideas for Mr. Reed's Doors," The American Art Journal, Vol. XII,, Summer 1980, pp. 33-45. Baigell, Matthew, Thomas Cole, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1981, pp. 16-9, 49-50, 52, 82. Treuttner, William H., "The Art of History: American Exploration and Discovery Scenes, 1840-1860," The American Art Journal, Vol. XIV, No. 1, Winter 1982, pp. 4-31. Kasson, Joy S., Artistic Voyagers: Europe and the American Imagination in the Works of Irving, Allston, Cole, Cooper and Hawthorne, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982, 84-90, 111-129. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New-York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 192-200. Tammenga, Michael J., The Beautiful, the Sublime, and The Picturesque: British Influences on American Landscape Painting, St. Louis Missouri: Washington University, 1984, p. 57. Maddox, Kenneth W., "Thomas Cole and the Railroad: Gentle Maledictions," Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1986, pp. 2-10. Kelly, Franklin, and Carr, Gerald L., The Early Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church, 1845-1854, Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum, 1987, p. 66. Menefee, Ellen Avitts, The Early Biblical Landscapes of Thomas Cole (1825-1829), Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI, 1987, p. 40, 80, 145. Miller, Angela, "Thomas Cole and Jacksonian America: The Course of Empire as Political Allegory," Prospects, Vol. 14, 1989, pp. 65-92. Powell, Earl A., Thomas Cole. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990, pp. 62-71, 184. Foshay, Ella M., Luman Reed's Picture Gallery: Pioneer Collection of American Art, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990, pp. 59-61, 130-40, 207-8. Platt, Susan, "Paradigms and Paradoxes: Nature, Morality, and Art in America," Art Journal, Vol. 51, No. 2, Summer 1992, pp. 82-88. Bryant II, William Cullen, Highlands Sketches: The Hudson River in the Eye of the Beholder, Mount Taurus Press, Nelsonville, New York: 1993, p. 13. Bailey, Brigitte, "The Protected Witness: Cole, Cooper, and the Tourist's View of the Italian Landscape," American Iconology: New Approaches to Nineteenth-Century Art and Literature, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993, pp. 92, 110. Daniels, Stephen, Fields of Vision: Landscape Imagery and National Identity in England and the United States, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1993, pp. 158-161. Robinson, Christine T., Guest Curator, Thomas Cole: Drawn to Nature, Albany, NY: Albany Institute of History & Art, 1993, pp. 34, 49-50, 52. Griffin, Randall C., "The Untrammeled Vision: Thomas Cole and the Dream of the Artist," Art Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2, Romanticism, Summer 1993, pp. 71. Nutty, Carolyn Sue Himelick, Joseph Harrison, Jr. (1810-1874): Philadelphia Art Collector, Vol. I, dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of Delaware in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Art History, Fall 1993, pp. 47-8. Caldwell, John and Roque, Oswaldo Rodriguez, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Vol. I, A Catalogue of Works by Artists Born by 1815, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994, pp. 459-61. Wallach, Alan, "Museums and Resistance to History," The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 21, 1994, pp. B3-5. Cooper, James F., Knights of the Brush: The Hudson River School and the Moral Landscape, New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1999, pp. 31, 45-8, 77, 80. Koja, Stephan, Ed. AMERICA: The New World in 19th-Century Painting, Munich: New York: Prestel, 1999, pp. 25-7, 215, 235. Goldfarb, Hilliard T., Hirschler, Erica E., Lears, T. J. Jackson, Sargeant: The Late Landscapes, Boston: University Press of New England, 1999, pp. 8-9. New-York Historical Society, Perspectives on the Collections of the New-York Historical Society, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 2000, p. 28-30. Georgi, Karen L., Dissertation, "Asher B. Durand's American Landscapes and the Nature of Representation," Boston University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 2000, pp. 115-7. Bedell, Rebecca, The Anatomy of Nature: Geology & American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001, pp. 26, 29, 33, 36, 38-41, 45. Wilton, Andrew & Barringer, Tim, American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States 1820-1880, London: Tate, 2002, pp. 23-4, 46, 51-3, 87, 95-109. Belli, Gabriella, Giacomoni, Paola, Cavino, Anna Ottani, curators, Montagna: Arte, scienza, Mito da Durer a Warhol, Milano: Skira, 2003, pp. 189-201. Simon, Janice, "Impressed in Memory: John Frederick Kensett's Italian Scene," Classic Ground: Mid-Nineteenth Century American Painting and the Italian Encounter, Athens, Georgia: Georgia Museum of Art, 2004, pp. 51-69. Payne, Christine, and Vaughn, William, eds., English Accents: Interactions with British Art c. 1776-1853, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004, pp. 10, 246. Burgard, Timothy Anglin, Ed., "Thomas Cole, Prometheus Bound," Masterworks of American Painting at the De Young, San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2005, pp. 70-3, 483-4. Ramirez, Jan Seidler, "A history of the New-York Historical Society," The Magazine Antiques, January 2005, pp. 140-1. Vedder, Lee A., "Nineteenth-century American paintings," The Magazine Antiques, January, 2005, pp. 148-9. De Salvo, Donna and Norden, Linda, "Course of Empire: Waste and Retrieval," Course of Empire, Exhibition Publication for the United States Pavilion at the 51st International Art Exhibition of the Venice Biennale, June 12-November 6, 2005, n.p. Rothschild, Jan, Soba, Stephen, Bullock, Meghan, "Whitney in Association with Harvard University Art Museums to Present Ed Ruscha's Course of Empire, Currently Representing the United States at the 2005 Venice Biennale," Press Release from the Whitney Museum of American Art, August, 2005, n.p. McDaniel, Amy Ellis, "Works on Paper by Thomas Cole in the Detroit Institute of Arts," Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts, Vol. 80, No. ½, 2006, pp. 16-25. Keck, Michaela, Walking in the Wilderness: The Peripatetic Tradition in Nineteenth-Century American Literature and Painting, Heidelberg: Winter, 2006, pp. 71-3, 75, 77. Novak, Barbara, American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 47-8, 51, 54. Kormhauser, Elizabeth M., "The Hudson River School: Landscape Art in America, 1820-1870," America: Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo", Italy: Linea d'Ombra Libri, 2007, p. 28. Hirshler, Erica Eve, "Nineteenth Century American Painters in Italy's 'Great University of Art,'" America: Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo", Italy: Linea d'Ombra Libri, 2007, p. 75 Vedder, Lee A. "Nineteenth-century American paintings." The Magazine Antiques 167 (2005): 146-155. Bland, Bartholomew F. and Vookles, Laura L. The Panoramic River: The Hudson and the Thames. Yonkers: Hudson River Museum, 2013.

Date End: 
1836
eMuseum Object ID: 
21572
Exclude from TMS update: 
OFF
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Autumn Twilight, View of Corway Peak [Mount Chocorua], New Hampshire

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
1834
Medium: 
Oil on wood panel
Dimensions: 
Overall: 13 3/4 x 19 1/2 in. ( 34.9 x 49.5 cm ) Framed: 21 7/8 × 27 7/8 × 3 1/4 in. (55.6 × 70.8 × 8.3 cm)
Credit Line: 
Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts
Object Number: 
1858.42
Gallery Label: 
Cole painted this and its pendant Summer Twilight, A Recollection of a Scene in New England (1858.46) while he was in the early stages of creating his monumental five-painting series The Course of Empire (1858.1-5). That series traces the rise and fall of an imaginary civilization, and in this pair Cole prefigured the larger themes of the series, but he placed them in an unmistakably American context. The critic and painter William Dunlap recalled visiting Cole in his studio on November 15, 1834 and seeing "2 small jewells [sic] & 2 larger paintings being the first two of the sett [sic] of 5 for Luman Reed Esq." The two large works were The Savage State (1858.1) and The Arcadian or Pastoral State (1858.2), which begin The Course of Empire series. The two "small jewells" [sic] were these seasonal twilight scenes, which closely parallel the themes of their larger counterparts. Cole clearly intended them as a pair: they are the same size and retain their identical original frames. Cole exhibited them together at the National Academy of Design in 1834, perhaps as a preview of his series. Autumn Twilight depicts Mount Chocorua in its richest autumnal finery. The scene is untouched by any trappings of civilization; in the foreground a storm-blasted tree trunk has been violently disfigured by the ungovernable power of nature. At the lower right an Indian glides by in his canoe, gazing steadily at the viewer as if in warning as he departs the scene. It bears a close relationship to the The Savage State, another wild landscape inhabited only by aboriginal figures. Cole purposely titled this painting with a specific location, which, along with the Indian figure, would have brought to any contemporary viewer's mind the legend of Chocorua. The story evolved throughout the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, but in its most basic form, the Indian Chocorua was pursued to the mountain summit by a group of white men (for reasons that vary in different accounts) and leapt to his death, but not before uttering a curse on the land, which was later blamed for the high mortality of cattle who grazed near the foot of the mountain. Cole's interpretation of the story showed his sympathy for the Indian, relating how the white men "gave the poor despairing and defenceless [sic] wretch the cruel choice of whether he would leap from the dreadful precipice on the top of which he stood or die beneath their rifles." Cole was moved to depict the crucial moment in his 1828-29 The Death of Chocorua, which is not currently located, but survives in the form of an engraving. In the N-YHS's Autumn Twilight of five to six years later, Cole referenced Chocorua's curse indirectly and used it as a point of departure for his own "legend" showing the uncorrupted origins of civilization that he would elaborate upon in The Course of Empire.
Provenance: 
Luman Reed, d. 1836; Mrs. Luman Reed, New York, 1836-44; New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts, 1844-58.
Bibliography: 
Morris, G. P., ed., "The National Academy: Second Notice," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. 12, May 23, 1835, p. 371. Herbert, Henry William, "Fine Arts in America: National Academy of Design, Tenth Annual Exhibition," The American Monthly Magazine V (June, 1835), No. 37, p. 318. Mather, Frank Jewett, Morey, Charles Rufus, and Henderson, William James, The Pageant of America: The American Spirit in Art, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927, p. 43. Noble, Louis Legrand, The Life and Works of Thomas Cole, Hensonville, New York: Black Dome Press, 1964, pp. xxxix, 65-6, 79, 126. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New-York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 204-5. Campbell, Catherine H., New Hampshire Scenery: A Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Artists of New Hampshire Mountain Landscapes, Canaan, New Hampshire: Phoenix Publishing, 1985, pp. 36-7. Foshay, Ella M., Mr. Luman Reed's Picture Gallery: A Pioneer Collection of American Art, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990, pp. 126, 129, 206-7. Koja, Stephan, Ed. AMERICA: The New World in 19th-Century Painting, Munich: New York: Prestel, 1999, pp. 73, 215. Cleveland Studies in the History of Art, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Vol. 6, 2001, p. 57.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1834
eMuseum Object ID: 
21540
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Sunset, Lake George, New York

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
1867
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 24 1/4 x 44 in. ( 61.6 x 111.8 cm ) Frame: 39 1/4 x 59 1/4 x 5 3/4 in. (99.7 x 150.5 x 14.6 cm)
Credit Line: 
The Robert L. Stuart Collection, on permanent loan from the New York Public Library
Object Number: 
S-126
Gallery Label: 
This painting was painted to order for Robert L. Stuart, Cropsey's records indicate that on April 6, 1867, he was paid 700 dollars by Stuart for a picture of Lake George and frame.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1867
eMuseum Object ID: 
21221
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

White Mountain Scenery, Franconia Notch, N.H.

Classification: 
Date: 
1857
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 48 1/4 x 72 1/2 in. ( 122.6 x 184.2 cm ) Frame: 62 1/2 x 86 1/2 x 5 in. ( 158.8 x 219.7 x 12.7 cm )
Credit Line: 
The Robert L. Stuart Collection, the gift of his widow Mrs. Mary Stuart
Object Number: 
S-105
Gallery Label: 
Durand's small study of Franconia, also in the Stuart Collection (Stuart 211) at the NYHS, served as a model for parts of this composition.
Bibliography: 
Clement, Clara Erskine, and Hutton, Laurence, Artists of the Nineteenth Century and their Works: A Handbook Containing Two Thousand and Fifty Biographical Sketches, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1880, Vol. I, p. 227. Huntington, Daniel, Asher B. Durand: A Memorial Address, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1887, pp. 34, 39. Catalogue of Paintings in the Picture Galleries, New York: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations, 1912, p. 23. Catalogue of Paintings in the Picture Galleries, New York: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations, 1929, p. 27. Catalogue of Paintings in the Picture Galleries, New York: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations, 1941, p. 22. Richardson, Edgar P., American Romantic Painting, New York: E. Weyhe, 1944, pp. 13, 31. Lawall, David B., Asher Brown Durand: His Art and Art Theory in Relation to his Times, Submitted to Princeton University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, March 1966, pp. 169-70, 266, 379-80, 411-2, 487-8, 557-8, 664, 667. Lawall, David B., Asher B. Durand: A Documentary Catalogue of the Narrative and Landscape Paintings, New York & London, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1978, pp. 117-9. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, p. 345. Campbell, Catherine H., New Hampshire Scenery: a Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Artists of New Hampshire Mountain Landscapes, Canaan, New Hampshire: Phoenix Publishing, 1985, p 53. Voorsanger, Catherine Hoover, and Howat, John K., Art and the Empire City New York, 1825-1861, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000, pp. 100-2. Foshay, Ella M., and Novak, Barbara, Intimate Friends: Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, William Cullen Bryant, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 2000, pp. 30-1, 34-5, 56. McGrath, Robert L., Gods in Granite: The Art of the White Mountains of New Hampshire, Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2001, pp. 116-120. Vedder, Lee A., "Heeding the Call of Nature: Asher Brown Durand's Communion with the American Landscape," The New-York Journal of American History, New York: New-York Historical Society, Vol. LXV, No. 4, Fall 2004, pp. 38-9, 46-7. Leggio, Gail, "Nature's Presence: Asher B. Durand and American Landscape," American Arts Quarterly, Spring 2007, pp. 10-3, 16-8. Ferber, Linda S., ed., Kindred Spirits Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape, Brooklyn Museum, 2007, pp. 188-9, 203.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1857
eMuseum Object ID: 
20844
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Pastoral Scene in West Campton, New Hampshire

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
1855-1857
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 25 1/4 x 22 in. ( 64.1 x 55.9 cm )
Credit Line: 
Gift of Robert L. Bowles
Object Number: 
1928.5
Bibliography: 
Lawall, David B., Asher Brown Durand: His Art and Art Theory in Relation to his Times, Submitted to Princeton University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, March 1966, p. 251. Lawall, David B., Asher B. Durand: A Documentary Catalogue of the Narrative and Landscape Paintings, New York & London, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1978, p. 186. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, p. 341. Campbell, Catherine H., New Hampshire Scenery: a Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Artists of New Hampshire Mountain Landscapes, Canaan, New Hampshire: Phoenix Publishing, 1985, p 53
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1857
eMuseum Object ID: 
20639
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

June Woods (Germantown)

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
1864
Medium: 
Oil on linen
Dimensions: 
framed: 47 x 40 1/2 x 4 in. ( 119.4 x 102.9 x 10.2 cm ) Overall: 36 x 29 x 1 in. ( 91.4 x 73.7 x 2.5 cm )
Credit Line: 
The Robert L. Stuart Collection, the gift of his widow Mrs. Mary Stuart
Object Number: 
S-127
Marks: 
signature and date: lower right: "Wm. T. Richards, Phila 1864"
Gallery Label: 
Richards's painting is listed with the title Germantown Woods in the catalog published by the New York Public Library, but research by Linda S. Ferber for her study on the artist in 1973 has revealed its earlier title of June Woods and earlier exhibition under that name. Richards always considered this one of his "most notable" paintings. Richards embraced the Hudson River School as a model early in his career. For a brief time in the early 1860s, however, he altered his technique and compositional approach in response tot the Pre-Raphaelite aesthetics of the English critic John Ruskin. Ruskin's call for absolute fidelity to nature manifested itself in the United States in a radical group of artists who formed the Association for the Advancement of Truth in Art to which Richards was elected in 1863. The minutely detailed foliage ofthis scene near Richards's Germantwon, Pennsylvania home aligns this painting with the American Pre-Raphaelite movement, while the vertical format demonstrates his continuing allegiance to Durand's model for portraying the forest interior.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1864
eMuseum Object ID: 
20064
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

View from the Ruins of the Greek Theater at Taormina, Sicily, with Mount Etna (Smoking)

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
c. 1868
Medium: 
Oil on paper laid on canvas, laid on Japanese paper and wood
Dimensions: 
Overall: 9 x 14 in. ( 22.9 x 35.6 cm )
Description: 
Landscape
Credit Line: 
Gift of Miss Nora Durand Woodman
Object Number: 
1932.45
Inscriptions: 
Inscribed at lower left with a stylus: "Taromina, Sicily"; signed at lower right: "T H Hotchkiss"; reverse of canvas inscribed (before conservation): "Taormina / Island of Sicily / Painted by Thomas H. Hotchkiss / Presented to / Lucy M. Durand Woodman"
Gallery Label: 
This painting was presented to Lucy Maria Durand Woodman, daughter of Asher B. Durand, and mother of Nora Durand Woodman.
Provenance: 
Estate of Thomas Hiram Hotchkiss; Asher B. Durand and Family; Lucy Durand Woodman, Orange, New Jersey
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1854
eMuseum Object ID: 
19885
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Sunday Morning

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
1839
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 25 1/4 x 36 1/4 in. ( 64.1 x 92.1 cm ) Framed: 35 1/2 in. × 46 1/2 in. × 4 in. (90.2 × 118.1 × 10.2 cm)
Credit Line: 
Gift of the children of the artist, through John Durand
Object Number: 
1903.3
Inscriptions: 
On back of canvas in the artist's hand: Presented to my Wife / Mary F Durand / 1840
Gallery Label: 
In 1860 Durand painted a replica of this subject for W. T. Walters of Baltimore, which was later owned by his partner and subsequently by Royal G. Taft of Providence. The present location is unknown. In a letter to Durand, dated from Providence on March 2, 1876, now in the New York Public Library, Taft refused to allow this painting to be sent to the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. This version was exhibited at the NAD, 1860, no. 515, 'Sunday Morning;' and at the Durand Sale (Ortgies), 1887, no. 377, 'Sunday Morning' (lent by Royal C. Taft, Providence). For another study, sometimes called 'Landscape: Sunday Morning,' painted by Durand in 1850 for Gouvernor Kemble, see Lawall, 3:141-42, no. 266. This was the view now called 'Early Morning at Cold Spring,' owned by the Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey.
Provenance: 
The artist and his family.
Bibliography: 
The NY Herald, July 4, 1840, p.2, col. 4-5. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts: Our Landscape Painters," The New-York Mirror: A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. 18, No. 4, July 18, 1840, p. 30. Executor's Sale, Studies in Oil by Asher B. Durand, N.A., Deceased, Ortgies' Art Gallery, New York, April 13 and 14, 1887, p. 33, no. 389. "Pictures by Durand," The New York Times, April 26, 1903, p. 34. Johnson, Rossiter, ed., The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans: Brief Biographies of Authors, Administrators, Clergymen, Commanders, Editors, Engineers, Jurists, Merchants, Officials, Philanthropists, Scientists, Statesmen, and Others Who Are Making American History, Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904, Vol. III, n.p. Catalogue of the Gallery of Art of The New York Historical Society, New York: Printed for the Society, 1915, p. 39. Born, Wolfgang, American Landscape Painting: An Interpretation, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948, pp. 40-2, 218. Flexner, James Thomas, That Wilder Image: The Painting of America's Native School from Thomas Cole to Winslow Homer, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962, p. 66. Lawall, David B., Asher Brown Durand: His Art and Art Theory in Relation to his Times, Submitted to Princeton University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, March 1966, pp. 82, 222-5, 246-7, 285, 377, 408-9, 417, 469, 481-2, 499-500, 625, 681-4, 686. Callow, James T., Kindred Spirits: Knickerbocker Writers and American Artists, 1807-1855, Durham, N.C., University of North Carolina Press, 1967, pp. 154-5. Lawall, David B., Asher B. Durand: A Documentary Catalogue of the Narrative and Landscape Paintings, New York & London, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1978, pp. 30, xxxix. The Boston Athenaeum Art Exhibition Index, 1827-1874, Boston, Massachusetts, The Library of the Boston Athenaeum, 1980, p. 52. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 308-10. Smith, Alvy Ray, compiled by, Dr. John Durand (1664-1727) of Derby Connecticut: His Family Through Four Generations Featuring the Branch of His Youngest Son Ebenezer Durand Through Ten Generations to 2003, Boston: Newbury Street Press, 2003, p. 218. Baigell, Matthew, "Getting a Grip on God: Painting the Christianized Landscape," Within the Landscape; Essays on Nineteenth-Century American Art and Culture, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, The Trout Gallery, 2005, Introduction, pp. 131-46. Ferber, Linda S., ed., "Asher B. Durand, American Landscape Painter," Kindred Spirits Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape, Brooklyn Museum, 2007, pp. 38, 85-8, 195, 201, 214, 221. Leggio, Gail, "In Nature's Presence: Asher B. Durand and American Landscape," American Arts Quarterly, Spring 2007, pp. 10-1, 14-5, 18.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1839
eMuseum Object ID: 
19883
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Catskill Mountains, Shandaken, N.Y.

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
1856
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall (canvas): 10 15/16 x 15 13/16 in. (27.8 x 40.2 cm) Frame: 15 3/4 x 20 3/4 x 2 1/4 in. ( 40 x 52.7 x 5.7 cm )
Credit Line: 
Gift of Nora Durand Woodman
Object Number: 
1932.44
Marks: 
Signature: Lower left: "T. H. HOTCHKISS"
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1856
eMuseum Object ID: 
19564
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

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