Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Havell plate no. 159
Watercolor, pastel, gouache, graphite, and black ink with selective glazing on paper, laid on card
Paper: 18 3/16 x 11 7/16 in. (46.2 x 29.1 cm) Mat: 29 x 23 in. (73.7 x 58.4 cm)
Watermark: TURKEY MILLS / JWHATMAN / 1817
Birds numbered in graphite upper and lower respectively: "1"; "2"
Male, above; female, below
The background flora has been identified as Carolina laurelcherry (Prunus caroliniana); female added to composition later.
Purchased for the Society by public subscription from Mrs. John J. Audubon
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.