Tontine Coffee House, N.Y.C.

Classification: 
Collections: 
Date: 
ca. 1797
Medium: 
Oil on linen, lined to fiberglass
Dimensions: 
Canvas: 43 x 65 x 2 in. ( 109.2 x 165.1 x 5.1 cm ) Frame: 54 1/2 x 77 1/8 x 5 1/16 in. (138.4 x 195.9 x 12.9 cm)
Description: 
N-YHS Museum Collection
Credit Line: 
Purchase, The Louis Durr Fund
Object Number: 
1907.32
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1797
eMuseum Object ID: 
22133
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Camp Bed

Collections: 
Date: 
1777-1785
Medium: 
Wood, canvas, iron
Dimensions: 
Overall: 27 3/4 x 78 x 34 1/2 in. ( 70.5 x 198.1 x 87.6 cm )
Description: 
Camp bed said to have been used by George Washington at Valley Forge; in three folding sections, each with canvas top supported by X-shaped wooden base; the whole surrounded by wooden frame (missing one of four pieces) with iron mounts.
Credit Line: 
Gift of Ernest Livingston McCrackan
Object Number: 
1871.8
Marks: 
inscribed: on brass plaque affixed to inner face of headboard: "The Camp Bedstead / used by / General Washington / during the Revolution. / Presented to the / NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY, / BY / Ernest Livingston McCrackan"
Gallery Label: 
According to the donor's great-aunt, Mrs. Francis A. Livingston (Catharine Roosevelt Kissam), this camp bed was given by Washington to his recording secretary, Richard Varick (1753-1831), at the close of the Revolutionary War. Varick then entrusted it to his wife's niece, Mrs. John L. Lefferts (Helena Kissam), who subsequently gave it to her great-nephew, the donor.
Bibliography: 
Bach, Debra Schmidt. "Witness to history: Furniture and historic relics." The Magazine Antiques 167 (2005): 162-167.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1785
eMuseum Object ID: 
22125
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Keg from the Erie Canal celebration

Exhibitions: 
Collections: 
Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Date: 
ca. 1825
Medium: 
Wood, metal, paint
Dimensions: 
Overall: 16 x 12 in. ( 40.6 x 30.5 cm )
Description: 
Small wooden barrel with an eagle and the words "WATER" and "Lake Erie" painted on front; brass plaque with inscription attached below rim.
Object Number: 
X.48
Marks: 
Label: brass plaque inscribed "KEG / FROM WHICH GOVERNOR CLINTON / POURED THE WATER OF LAKE ERIE INTO THE ATLANTIC / OCTOBER 26, 1825 / ON THE COMPLETION OF THE ERIE CANAL" Inscription: painted on front of barrel "WATER / Lake Erie"
Gallery Label: 
Keg used by Governor DeWitt Clinton in pouring the water of Lake Erie into the Atlantic Ocean at Sandy Hook on November 4, 1825 as part of the ceremonies attending the completion of the Erie Canal on October 26, 1825.
Bibliography: 
Bach, Debra Schmidt. "Witness to history: Furniture and historic relics." The Magazine Antiques 167 (2005): 162-167.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1825
eMuseum Object ID: 
21950
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Section of water pipe

Classification: 
Collections: 
Date: 
1800-1840
Medium: 
Wood, iron
Dimensions: 
Overall: 24 x 15 x 15 in. ( 61 x 38.1 x 38.1 cm )
Description: 
Cross section of wooden water pipe with iron water gate mounted on wrought-iron frame; pipe made by boring a hole through the center of a log; water gate is flat, wedge-shaped piece of iron with eyelet at top.
Credit Line: 
Gift of Mr. J. W. Rutherford, 1907
Object Number: 
X.47
Marks: 
engraved: in plaque: "SECTION OF THE WATER PIPE/ WITH IRON WATER GATE/ LAID BY/ THE MANHATTAN COMPANY"
Gallery Label: 
The Manhattan Water Company, founded in 1799, was originally envisioned by public officials as a provider of pure waters from north of the city. The company's goals were never realized -- its only source was a modest existing well near the Collect pond, the mostly wooden mains reached only a portion of the city's residents, and the water quality was often poor.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1840
eMuseum Object ID: 
21944
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Diana of the Tower

Classification: 
Collections: 
Date: 
1899
Medium: 
Bronze
Dimensions: 
Overall: 38 5/8 x 14 3/4 x 11 in. ( 98.1 x 37.5 x 27.9 cm )
Description: 
Red-brown patinated bronze depicting Diana with bow (arrow missing) supported on one foot on ball; lost wax cast on sand cast base, pinned to triangular base.
Credit Line: 
Purchase
Object Number: 
1977.3
Marks: 
Inscription: on front of base: "DIANA OF THE TOWER" Signature and date: on back of base: "AUGUSTUS SAINTGAUDENS MDCCCXCIX"
Gallery Label: 
This statue, commissioned by Tiffany, is after the version that topped the second Madison Square Garden, NYC.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1899
eMuseum Object ID: 
21653
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827)

Collections: 
Classification: 
Date: 
1824
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 26 1/4 x 22 in. ( 66.7 x 55.9 cm )
Credit Line: 
Purchase, James B. Wilbur Fund
Object Number: 
1940.202
Gallery Label: 
Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) established himself in Philadelphia in the late eighteenth century as one of the foremost portrait painters in America, having spent two years abroad in the late 1760s studying his craft in London under the tutelage of the American-born artist, Benjamin West. Later in his career, Peale devoted himself mainly to the creation and management of the Peale Museum in Philadelphia. In his last self-portrait, Peale chose to commemorate his greatest contribution to science: the excavation of two fossilized mastodon skeletons from a glacial bog near Newburgh, New York in 1801. Peale is pictured with an enormous leg bone, which was incorporated into the reconstructed skeleton and displayed in his museum. The Society purchased the portrait from a descendant of the artist, Adaleane (Summers) Greenwood, in 1940.
Bibliography: 
Sellers, Charles Coleman, Portraits and Miniatures by Charles Willson Peale, The Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 42, Part I, Philadelphia: 1952, p. 163. Catalogue of American Portraits in The New-York Historical Society, New Haven: Yale University Press, Vol. 2, 1974, p 608. Ward, David C., "Celebration of Self: The portraiture of Charles Willson Peale and Rembrandt Peale, 1822-27," American Art, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Winter 1993), pp. 8-27. Ward, David C., Charles Willson Peale, Art and Selfhood in the Early Republic. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004, frontispiece, pp:156-9. Johnston, Patricia, ed., Seeing High & Low: Representing Social Conflict in American Visual Culture, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006, p. 16.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1824
eMuseum Object ID: 
21638
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

The Course of Empire: Desolation

Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Highlight: 
Display this item in the highlights
Date: 
1836
Medium: 
Oil on canvas (relined)
Dimensions: 
Overall: 39 1/4 x 63 1/4 in. ( 99.7 x 160.7 cm ) Framed: 53 in. × 6 ft. 4 1/2 in. × 5 3/4 in. (134.6 × 194.3 × 14.
Description: 

Thomas Cole. The Course of Empire: Desolation, 1836. Oil on canvas, 39 1/4 x 63 1/4 in. New-York Historical Society, Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts.

Credit Line: 
Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts
Object Number: 
1858.5
Gallery Label: 

In the late 1820s the young Thomas Cole quickly built a successful career as a painter of Hudson River landscapes, but he harbored ambitions of turning the landscape form to a larger purpose. As early as 1827 he conceived a cycle of paintings that would illustrate the rise and fall of a civilization, and a few years later he began sketching and developing his ideas. The artist attempted unsuccessfully to persuade Robert Gilmor, a Baltimore patron, to commission the series, and in 1833 he secured a commission from New York merchant Luman Reed to paint a cycle of five paintings for the art gallery in his home. In the resulting series, The Course of Empire, Cole presented a cyclical view of history in which a civilization appears, matures, and collapses. The artist's distinctly pessimistic vision differed from that of many of his peers; in the early years of the United States' history, its future was considered limitless. Cole drew from a number of literary sources, such as Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and Byron's epic Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. The motto he attached to the series was taken from Byron's popular poem: "First freedom, then glory; when that fails, wealth, vice, corruption." The artist finally settled on a title in 1835, taken from Bishop George Berkeley's 1729 poem, "Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America," which begins "Westward the Course of Empire takes its way." Cole also drew upon paintings he had seen on his recent trip to Europe (1829-32), including the work of J.M.W. Turner and Claude Lorrain. The five paintings follow a dramatic narrative arc, anchored by the imperturbable mountain in the background, and expounded with rich and complex symbolic systems that illustrate this imaginary world's history, including the course of the sun across the sky, the changing relation of man to nature, the role of animals, the arts, and the military, and even the placement and character of his own signature. Luman Reed, Cole's generous patron, did not live to see the completion of the series. He died in June of 1836, but Reed's family encouraged Cole to complete the work. The series was exhibited to great acclaim in New York later that year. The Course of Empire, along with the rest of Reed's collection, became the core of the New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts. That group of works was donated to the New-York Historical Society in 1858, forming the foundation of its acclaimed collection of American landscape painting. For this last episode Cole described how "violence and time have crumbled the works of man, and art is again resolving into elemental nature. The gorgeous pageant has passed, the roar of battle has ceased - the multitude has sunk into the dust - empire is extinct." Perhaps the most original and certainly the most poetic of the five canvases, Desolation captures the exquisite stillness of a world without mankind; Cole wrote to his friend Asher B. Durand that he intended for the picture to "express silence and solitude." The sun is setting and nature is again reclaiming the landscape: a lizard crawls up a grand column at left that once supported a palace or temple, and herons nest atop it. A buck and doe are poised to drink near the water by the remains of a temple. Cole may have drawn inspiration for these ruins from those he observed on his trip to Europe in 1829-32. In his concluding statement of this grand series Cole showed "art resolving into elemental nature," and he applied this state even to himself. His signature at lower right appears upside down and incised into a stone that is partially overgrown with vegetation. This placement suggests the artist's own mortality and his eventual reunion with nature in death - the "C" in his name has already disappeared under the growth, signaling to the viewer that all the works of man will eventually be reclaimed by nature.

Provenance: 

Luman Reed, d. 1836; Mrs. Luman Reed, New York, 1836-44; New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts, 1844-58.

Bibliography: 

Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XII, No. 23, December 6, 1834, p. 179. Isham, Samuel, The History of American Painting, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1936, pp. 225-6. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIII, April 2, 1836, p. 318. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 17, October 22, 1836, p. 135. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 18, October 29, 1836, p. 142. Clark, Lewis Gaylord, ed. The Knickerbocker, Vol. VIII, No. 5, November, 1836, pp. 81, 630. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 19, November 4, 1836, p. 150. "Amusements," New York Commercial Advertiser, Vol. XXXIX, Friday, November 4, 1836, n.p. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 20, November 12, 1836, p. 158. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 27, December 31, 1836, p. 215. Poe, Edgar Allen, ed., "The New York Gallery of the Fine Arts," The Broadway Journal, I, February 15,1845, pp. 102-103. Bryant, William Cullen, Funeral Oration, occasioned by the Death of Thomas Cole, Delivered Before the National Academy of Design, New-York, May 4, 1848, New York, D. Appleton & Company, pp. 23-4, 26. Exhibition of the Paintings of the late Thomas Cole, at the Gallery of the American Art-Union, 1848, pp. 19-20. Noble, Louis Legrand, The Course of Empire, Voyage of life, and Other Pictures of Thomas Cole, N. A., With Selections from his Letters and Miscellaneous Writings: Illustrative of his Life, Character, and Genius, New York: Cornish, Lamport & Company, 1853, n.p. Stillman, W. J. & Durand, J. Eds., "The Artists of America," The Crayon, Vol. VII, No. 2, February 1860, pp. 45-6. Hone, Philip, The Diary of Philip Hone 1828-1851, New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1889, p. 236. Durand, John, The Life and Times of Asher B. Durand, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1894; Reprint, Hensonville, NY: Black Dome Press, 2007), p. 124. Caffin, Charles H., The Story of American Painting: The Evolution of Painting in America from Colonial Times to the Present, New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1907, pp. 66, 69-70. Mather, Frank Jewett, Morey, Charles Rufus, and Henderson, William James, The Pageant of America: The American Spirit in Art, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927, p. 43. Sweet, Frederick A. "Asher B. Durand, Pioneer, American Landscape Painter," The Art Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2, Spring, 1945, pp. 141, 153. Howe, Winifred E., A History of the Metropolitan Museum of Art with a Chapter on the Early Institutions of Art in New York. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946, pp. 62-7 Thomas Cole: One Hundred Years Later, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT 1948, pp. 10-1. Tunnard, Christopher, "Reflections on the Course of Empire and other Architectural Fantasies of Thomas Cole, N.A.," The Architectural Review, Vol. 104, December 1948, pp. 291-294. Davidson, Marshall, "Whither the Course of Empire?" American Heritage, October 1957, pp. 52-5, 58-61, 104. Flexner, James Thomas, That Wilder Image: The Painting of America's Native School from Thomas Cole to Winslow Homer, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962, pp. 49-58, 108, 354. McCoubrey, John, American Tradition in Painting, New York: G. Braziller, 1963, p. 65. Exhibition at Kennedy Galleries, New York, 1964, pp. 14, 26-7. Noble, Louis Legrand, The Life and Works of Thomas Cole, Hensonville, New York: Black Dome Press, 1964, pp. 103, 112, 129-131, 149-50, 155, 157-9, 164-74, 264, 268, 287. Wallach, Alan P., "The Origins of Thomas Cole's 'Course of Empire,'" M.A. Theses, Columbia University, 1965. Lawall, David B., Asher Brown Durand: His Art and Art Theory in Relation to His Times, partial fulfillment of requirements for PhD, Princeton, 1966, pp. 170-92, 288-9. Callow, James T., Kindred Spirits: Knickerbocker Writers and American Artists, 1807-1855, Durham, North Carolina, The University of North Carolina Press, 1967, p. 157. Annual II: Studies on Thomas Cole, An American Romanticist, Baltimore, Maryland: Baltimore Museum of Art, 1967, pp. 72-4. Wallach, Alan P., "Cole, Byron, and the Course of Empire," The Art Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 4, December 1968, pp. 375-9. Dunlap, William, A History of the Rise and Progress of The Arts of Design in the United States, A Reprint of the Original 1834 Edition with a New Introduction by James Thomas Flexner, Vol. 2, Part 2, New York: Dover Publications, 1969, p. 366. Baur, John I. H., The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge 1820-1910, New York: Arno Press, 1969, pp. 40-1. Parry, Elwood, Thomas Cole's "The Course of Empire:" A Study in Serial Imagery, PhD Dissertation, Yale, 1970, pp. 254-60. Glassie, Henry H., "Thomas Cole and Niagara Falls," The New-York Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. LVIII, No. 2, April 1974, p. 89. Novak, Barbara, "The Double-Edged Axe," Art in America, Vol. 64, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1976, pp. 44-50. New York State Museum, New York: The State of Art, Albany, New York: The New York State Museum, 1977, pp. 25, 30-1, and exhibition catalog, Mann, Maybelle, The American Art-Union, Jupiter FL: ALM Associates, c. 1977, pp. 15-7. Davidson, Abraham A., The Eccentrics and Other American Visionary Painters, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978, pp. 16-9, 138. Lynes, Russell, "Luman Reed: A New York Patron," Apollo, Vol. 107, No. 192, 1978, pp. 124-9. Cikovsky Jr., Nicolai, "'The Ravages of the Axe:" The Meaning of the Tree Stump in Nineteenth-Century American Art," The Art Bulletin, Vol. 61, No. 4, Dec., 1979, pp. 611-26. Craven, Wayne, "Luman Reed, patron: His Collection and Gallery," The American Art Journal, Vol. XII,, Spring 1980, pp. 43, 45, 50-6. Parry III, Ellwood C., "Thomas Cole's Ideas for Mr. Reed's Doors," The American Art Journal, Vol. XII,, Summer 1980, pp. 33-45. Baigell, Matthew, Thomas Cole, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1981, pp. 16-9, 49-50, 52, 82. Treuttner, William H., "The Art of History: American Exploration and Discovery Scenes, 1840-1860," The American Art Journal, Vol. XIV, No. 1, Winter 1982, pp. 4-31. Kasson, Joy S., Artistic Voyagers: Europe and the American Imagination in the Works of Irving, Allston, Cole, Cooper and Hawthorne, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982, 84-90, 111-129. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New-York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 192-200. Tammenga, Michael J., The Beautiful, the Sublime, and The Picturesque: British Influences on American Landscape Painting, St. Louis Missouri: Washington University, 1984, p. 57. Maddox, Kenneth W., "Thomas Cole and the Railroad: Gentle Maledictions," Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1986, pp. 2-10. Kelly, Franklin, and Carr, Gerald L., The Early Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church, 1845-1854, Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum, 1987, p. 66. Menefee, Ellen Avitts, The Early Biblical Landscapes of Thomas Cole (1825-1829), Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI, 1987, p. 40, 80, 145. Miller, Angela, "Thomas Cole and Jacksonian America: The Course of Empire as Political Allegory," Prospects, Vol. 14, 1989, pp. 65-92. Powell, Earl A., Thomas Cole. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990, pp. 62-71, 184. Foshay, Ella M., Luman Reed's Picture Gallery: Pioneer Collection of American Art, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990, pp. 59-61, 130-40, 207-8. Platt, Susan, "Paradigms and Paradoxes: Nature, Morality, and Art in America," Art Journal, Vol. 51, No. 2, Summer 1992, pp. 82-88. Bryant II, William Cullen, Highlands Sketches: The Hudson River in the Eye of the Beholder, Mount Taurus Press, Nelsonville, New York: 1993, p. 13. Bailey, Brigitte, "The Protected Witness: Cole, Cooper, and the Tourist's View of the Italian Landscape," American Iconology: New Approaches to Nineteenth-Century Art and Literature, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993, pp. 92, 110. Daniels, Stephen, Fields of Vision: Landscape Imagery and National Identity in England and the United States, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1993, pp. 158-161. Robinson, Christine T., Guest Curator, Thomas Cole: Drawn to Nature, Albany, NY: Albany Institute of History & Art, 1993, pp. 34, 49-50, 52. Griffin, Randall C., "The Untrammeled Vision: Thomas Cole and the Dream of the Artist," Art Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2, Romanticism, Summer 1993, pp. 71. Nutty, Carolyn Sue Himelick, Joseph Harrison, Jr. (1810-1874): Philadelphia Art Collector, Vol. I, dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of Delaware in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Art History, Fall 1993, pp. 47-8. Caldwell, John and Roque, Oswaldo Rodriguez, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Vol. I, A Catalogue of Works by Artists Born by 1815, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994, pp. 459-61. Wallach, Alan, "Museums and Resistance to History," The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 21, 1994, pp. B3-5. Cooper, James F., Knights of the Brush: The Hudson River School and the Moral Landscape, New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1999, pp. 31, 45-8, 77, 80. Koja, Stephan, Ed. AMERICA: The New World in 19th-Century Painting, Munich: New York: Prestel, 1999, pp. 25-7, 215, 235. Goldfarb, Hilliard T., Hirschler, Erica E., Lears, T. J. Jackson, Sargeant: The Late Landscapes, Boston: University Press of New England, 1999, pp. 8-9. New-York Historical Society, Perspectives on the Collections of the New-York Historical Society, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 2000, p. 28-30. Georgi, Karen L., Dissertation, "Asher B. Durand's American Landscapes and the Nature of Representation," Boston University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 2000, pp. 115-7. Bedell, Rebecca, The Anatomy of Nature: Geology & American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001, pp. 26, 29, 33, 36, 38-41, 45. Wilton, Andrew & Barringer, Tim, American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States 1820-1880, London: Tate, 2002, pp. 23-4, 46, 51-3, 87, 95-109. Belli, Gabriella, Giacomoni, Paola, Cavino, Anna Ottani, curators, Montagna: Arte, scienza, Mito da Durer a Warhol, Milano: Skira, 2003, pp. 189-201. Simon, Janice, "Impressed in Memory: John Frederick Kensett's Italian Scene," Classic Ground: Mid-Nineteenth Century American Painting and the Italian Encounter, Athens, Georgia: Georgia Museum of Art, 2004, pp. 51-69. Payne, Christine, and Vaughn, William, eds., English Accents: Interactions with British Art c. 1776-1853, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004, pp. 10, 246. Burgard, Timothy Anglin, Ed., "Thomas Cole, Prometheus Bound," Masterworks of American Painting at the De Young, San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2005, pp. 70-3, 483-4. Ramirez, Jan Seidler, "A history of the New-York Historical Society," The Magazine Antiques, January 2005, pp. 140-1. Vedder, Lee A., "Nineteenth-century American paintings," The Magazine Antiques, January, 2005, pp. 148-9. De Salvo, Donna and Norden, Linda, "Course of Empire: Waste and Retrieval," Course of Empire, Exhibition Publication for the United States Pavilion at the 51st International Art Exhibition of the Venice Biennale, June 12-November 6, 2005, n.p. Rothschild, Jan, Soba, Stephen, Bullock, Meghan, "Whitney in Association with Harvard University Art Museums to Present Ed Ruscha's Course of Empire, Currently Representing the United States at the 2005 Venice Biennale," Press Release from the Whitney Museum of American Art, August, 2005, n.p. McDaniel, Amy Ellis, "Works on Paper by Thomas Cole in the Detroit Institute of Arts," Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts, Vol. 80, No. ½, 2006, pp. 16-25. Keck, Michaela, Walking in the Wilderness: The Peripatetic Tradition in Nineteenth-Century American Literature and Painting, Heidelberg: Winter, 2006, pp. 71-3, 75, 77. Novak, Barbara, American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 47-8, 51, 54. Kormhauser, Elizabeth M., "The Hudson River School: Landscape Art in America, 1820-1870," America: Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo", Italy: Linea d'Ombra Libri, 2007, p. 28. Hirshler, Erica Eve, "Nineteenth Century American Painters in Italy's 'Great University of Art,'" America: Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo", Italy: Linea d'Ombra Libri, 2007, p. 75 Vedder, Lee A. "Nineteenth-century American paintings." The Magazine Antiques 167 (2005): 146-155. Bland, Bartholomew F. and Vookles, Laura L. The Panoramic River: The Hudson and the Thames. Yonkers: Hudson River Museum, 2013.

Date End: 
1836
eMuseum Object ID: 
21572
Exclude from TMS update: 
OFF
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

White Mountain Scenery, Franconia Notch, N.H.

Classification: 
Date: 
1857
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 48 1/4 x 72 1/2 in. ( 122.6 x 184.2 cm ) Frame: 62 1/2 x 86 1/2 x 5 in. ( 158.8 x 219.7 x 12.7 cm )
Credit Line: 
The Robert L. Stuart Collection, the gift of his widow Mrs. Mary Stuart
Object Number: 
S-105
Gallery Label: 
Durand's small study of Franconia, also in the Stuart Collection (Stuart 211) at the NYHS, served as a model for parts of this composition.
Bibliography: 
Clement, Clara Erskine, and Hutton, Laurence, Artists of the Nineteenth Century and their Works: A Handbook Containing Two Thousand and Fifty Biographical Sketches, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1880, Vol. I, p. 227. Huntington, Daniel, Asher B. Durand: A Memorial Address, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1887, pp. 34, 39. Catalogue of Paintings in the Picture Galleries, New York: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations, 1912, p. 23. Catalogue of Paintings in the Picture Galleries, New York: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations, 1929, p. 27. Catalogue of Paintings in the Picture Galleries, New York: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations, 1941, p. 22. Richardson, Edgar P., American Romantic Painting, New York: E. Weyhe, 1944, pp. 13, 31. Lawall, David B., Asher Brown Durand: His Art and Art Theory in Relation to his Times, Submitted to Princeton University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, March 1966, pp. 169-70, 266, 379-80, 411-2, 487-8, 557-8, 664, 667. Lawall, David B., Asher B. Durand: A Documentary Catalogue of the Narrative and Landscape Paintings, New York & London, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1978, pp. 117-9. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, p. 345. Campbell, Catherine H., New Hampshire Scenery: a Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Artists of New Hampshire Mountain Landscapes, Canaan, New Hampshire: Phoenix Publishing, 1985, p 53. Voorsanger, Catherine Hoover, and Howat, John K., Art and the Empire City New York, 1825-1861, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000, pp. 100-2. Foshay, Ella M., and Novak, Barbara, Intimate Friends: Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, William Cullen Bryant, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 2000, pp. 30-1, 34-5, 56. McGrath, Robert L., Gods in Granite: The Art of the White Mountains of New Hampshire, Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2001, pp. 116-120. Vedder, Lee A., "Heeding the Call of Nature: Asher Brown Durand's Communion with the American Landscape," The New-York Journal of American History, New York: New-York Historical Society, Vol. LXV, No. 4, Fall 2004, pp. 38-9, 46-7. Leggio, Gail, "Nature's Presence: Asher B. Durand and American Landscape," American Arts Quarterly, Spring 2007, pp. 10-3, 16-8. Ferber, Linda S., ed., Kindred Spirits Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape, Brooklyn Museum, 2007, pp. 188-9, 203.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1857
eMuseum Object ID: 
20844
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Ice cream dish

Classification: 
Collections: 
Date: 
1877-1878
Medium: 
Silver
Dimensions: 
Overall: 6 1/4 x 15 3/8 in. ( 15.9 x 39.1 cm )
Description: 
Wrought silver and gilt ice cream dish in an Indian design; shallow, almost flat, circular body with a wide, lobed rim; each lobe repoussé chased with clovers, thistle or flowers; foliate trefoil motifs are applied at the top of the rim at each plain division; the wrought initials, "M L M" are applied to the rim on one side and the Hungerford (Mrs. Mackay's) family coat of arms topped by a crown and thistle are applied to the opposite side of the rim; interior of the bowl is gilt with an etched and lightly engraved, scalloped ring of flowers; bowl seated on a molded footring with an applied Chinese fret-work and Indian floral apron; four elephant trunk feet with chased Asian flowers and vines are applied to the underside of the apron; maker's mark and object number on the base.
Credit Line: 
Gift of Mr. John Mackay
Object Number: 
1980.14
Marks: 
wrought: applied to rim: "M L M" in foliate roman letters stamped: on the base: "TIFFANY & Co/ 4878 MAKERS 5635/ STERLING-SILVER/ 925-1000/ M" engraved: on the base: "207/ _/ 5"
Gallery Label: 
This ice cream dish was part of an extravagant 1,250-piece dinner service made by Tiffany & Co. for John W. and Marie Louise Mackay. In 1873, "Silver King" John Mackay discovered the Comstock Lode, a vast silver deposit in Virginia City, Nevada, and he had the service made from half a ton of silver extracted from the mine. It was the largest and most ornate service of the Gilded Age. Reportedly, two hundred craftsmen worked on the service exclusively for two years.
Provenance: 
Marie Louise Hungerford Mackay (1843-1928) and John William Mackay (1831-1902); to their son Clarence Hungerford Mackay (1874-1938), who married Katherine Duer (1872-1930); to their son John William Mackay (1907-1988), the donor.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1878
eMuseum Object ID: 
17956
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

The Indian: The Dying Chief Contemplating the Progress of Civilization

Classification: 
Collections: 
Date: 
1856
Medium: 
White marble and wood
Dimensions: 
Overall: 60 x 55 1/2 x 28 in. ( 152.4 x 141 x 71.1 cm )
Description: 
Indian chief figure seated on low mound, a nude figure, head crowned with tufted feathers rests upon his right hand.
Credit Line: 
Gift of Mr. Frederic De Peyster
Object Number: 
1875.4
Marks: 
signed: PL back of seat: "CRAWFORD/FECIT/ROME 1856" inscribed: PR end of sub-base: "PRESENTED BY/FREDERICK DE PEYSTER, PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY, 1875" brass plaque: front of wood pedestal: "THE INDIAN/ THE DYING CHIEF CONTEMPLATING THE/PROGRESS OF CI
Gallery Label: 
Thomas Crawford was born in New York and apprenticed there with the sculptors John Frazee (1790-1852) and Robert Launitz (1806-1870). He moved to Rome in 1835 where he trained with the Danish-born sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844), Antonio Canova's (1757-1822) successor as the preeminent neoclassical sculptor of the age. Such was Crawford's skill that he soon came to be considered Thorvaldsen's heir. "The Indian" is a later remodeling in the round of Crawford's figure for the pediment frieze of the Senate wing of the U.S. Capital, a commission he worked on from 1853 to 1855. The artist gave particular attention to this figure, which is the only representation of a classical nude in the pediment. Crawford's vision of the government's program for the frieze, the triumph of civilization over the savage state, was somewhat sympathetic to American Indians. His noble representation of pathos has distinct similarities to the second century "Dying Gaul" (formerly Dying Gladiator) in the Capitoline Museum in Rome, with which Crawford would have been familiar. At Crawford's death, the great English sculptor John Gibson (1790-1866) singled out "The Indian" among the works remaining in the artist's Rome studio as the best suited to be "placed in some fine public hall," "there to stand as a monument to the author, an American sculptor of great genius." The artist's widow, Louisa Ward Crawford Terry (1823-1897), sister of the abolitionist poet Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910), sent "The Indian" to New York in 1861. The critic Henry T. Tuckerman (1813-1871) noted that the Civil War was an "unfortunate" time to sell artwork; acting on Mrs. Terry's behalf, he deposited "The Indian" at the New-York Historical Society. In 1875, Frederic de Peyster, the Society's president (1864-1866; 1873-1882), purchased "The Indian" for the substantial sum of $4,000. The work remained in the vestible of the Society's Second Avenue home, until the Society moved to Central Park West in 1908. There, "The Indian" was placed opposite the main door to the auditorium, an area of prominence to which it now returns.
Bibliography: 
Ramirez, Jan Seidler. "A History of the New-York Historical Society." The Magazine Antiques 167 (2005): 138-145.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1856
eMuseum Object ID: 
17761
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

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Creative: Tronvig Group