Castle Garden, New York City

Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
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Date: 
1859
Medium: 
Oil on canvas (relined)
Dimensions: 
Overall: 15 1/8 x 24 1/4 in. ( 38.4 x 61.6 cm ) Framed: 21 × 30 × 2 3/4 in. (53.3 × 76.2 × 7 cm)
Credit Line: 
Purchase, Thomas Jefferson Bryan Fund
Object Number: 
1972.13
Marks: 
Signed and dated lower middle: J F Cropsey / 1859. Inscribed in pencil on wood backing panel: Castle Garden, New York / J. F. Cropsey—London—1859
Gallery Label: 
The composition is identical with Cropsey's earlier study of the same subject painted in 1851 in the Society's collection. The main difference between the two is that the 1859 version is a moonlight scene. This later rendering is quite likely the one sold to the lithographer E. Gambert on July 28, 1859, while Cropsey was in London. The artist was then in the process of producing paintings 15 x 24 inches in size to be lithographed by Gambert.
Bibliography: 
Talbot, William Silas. Jasper F. Cropsey 1823-1900, A dissertation in the Department of Fine Arts submitted to the faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Science in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of New York University, June 1972, p. 318. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, p. 233. Bland, Bartholomew F. and Vookles, Laura L. The Panoramic River: The Hudson and the Thames. Yonkers: Hudson River Museum, 2013.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1859
eMuseum Object ID: 
41643
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

The Course of Empire: Destruction

Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
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Date: 
1836
Medium: 
Oil on canvas (relined)
Dimensions: 
Overall: 39 1/4 x 63 1/2 in. ( 99.7 x 161.3 cm ) Framed: 53 in. × 6 ft. 4 1/2 in. × 5 3/4 in. (134.6 × 194.3 × 14.
Description: 

Thomas Cole. The Course of Empire: Destruction, 1836. Oil on canvas, 39 1/4 x 63 1/2 in. New-York Historical Society, Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts.

Credit Line: 
Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts
Object Number: 
1858.4
Marks: 
signed, dated lower right: 'T. Cole / 1836'
Gallery Label: 

In the late 1820s the young Thomas Cole quickly built a successful career as a painter of Hudson River landscapes, but he harbored ambitions of turning the landscape form to a larger purpose. As early as 1827 he conceived a cycle of paintings that would illustrate the rise and fall of a civilization, and a few years later he began sketching and developing his ideas. The artist attempted unsuccessfully to persuade Robert Gilmor, a Baltimore patron, to commission the series, and in 1833 he secured a commission from New York merchant Luman Reed to paint a cycle of five paintings for the art gallery in his home. In the resulting series, The Course of Empire, Cole presented a cyclical view of history in which a civilization appears, matures, and collapses. The artist's distinctly pessimistic vision differed from that of many of his peers; in the early years of the United States' history, its future was considered limitless. Cole drew from a number of literary sources, such as Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and Byron's epic Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. The motto he attached to the series was taken from Byron's popular poem: "First freedom, then glory; when that fails, wealth, vice, corruption." The artist finally settled on a title in 1835, taken from Bishop George Berkeley's 1729 poem, "Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America," which begins "Westward the Course of Empire takes its way." Cole also drew upon paintings he had seen on his recent trip to Europe (1829-32), including the work of J.M.W. Turner and Claude Lorrain. The five paintings follow a dramatic narrative arc, anchored by the imperturbable mountain in the background, and expounded with rich and complex symbolic systems that illustrate this imaginary world's history, including the course of the sun across the sky, the changing relation of man to nature, the role of animals, the arts, and the military, and even the placement and character of his own signature. Luman Reed, Cole's generous patron, did not live to see the completion of the series. He died in June of 1836, but Reed's family encouraged Cole to complete the work. The series was exhibited to great acclaim in New York later that year. The Course of Empire, along with the rest of Reed's collection, became the core of the New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts. That group of works was donated to the New-York Historical Society in 1858, forming the foundation of its acclaimed collection of American landscape painting. This fourth and most dramatic of the images in the cycle depicts the ruin of Cole's civilization. On August 30, 1836 the artist wrote to his friend and fellow artist Asher B. Durand "I have been engaged in Sacking & Burning a city every since I saw you & am well nigh tired of such horrid work." The vainglorious city that Cole depicted in The Consummation of Empire has fallen to a savage enemy, and the critic for the New-York Mirror lauded Cole's critique of imperial rule, agreeing with the artist's depiction that "[s]uch is the merited downfall of all the empires which the earth has heretofore known." Instead of the statue of Minerva, goddess of wisdom, that kept watch over The Consummation of Empire, a headless colossal figure taken from the Louvre's Borghese Warrior witnesses the rapacious acts of the invading army. Cole was likely influenced by the English painter John Martin's panoramic scenes of apocalyptic disaster, and he no doubt knew that his depiction would bring to mind the terror and destruction wrought in New York by the Great Fire of 1835. Unlike the other paintings, here Cole's signature is audaciously large and carved in slashing letters, almost like an act of vandalism, on the pedestal of the ruined statue at the right.

Provenance: 

Luman Reed, d. 1836; Mrs. Luman Reed, New York, 1836-44; New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts, 1844-58.

Bibliography: 

Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XII, No. 23, December 6, 1834, p. 179. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIII, April 2, 1836, p. 318. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 17, October 22, 1836, p. 135. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 18, October 29, 1836, p. 142. Clark, Lewis Gaylord, ed. The Knickerbocker, Vol. VIII, No. 5, November, 1836, pp. 81, 630. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 19, November 4, 1836, p. 150. "Amusements," New York Commercial Advertiser, Vol. XXXIX, Friday, November 4, 1836, n.p. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 20, November 12, 1836, p. 158. Morris, G. P., ed., "The Fine Arts," The New-York Mirror, A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol. XIV, No. 27, December 31, 1836, p. 215. Poe, Edgar Allen, ed., "The New York Gallery of the Fine Arts," The Broadway Journal, I, February 15,1845, pp. 102-103. Bryant, William Cullen, Funeral Oration, occasioned by the Death of Thomas Cole, Delivered Before the National Academy of Design, New-York, May 4, 1848, New York, D. Appleton & Company, pp. 23-4, 26. Exhibition of the Paintings of the late Thomas Cole, at the Gallery of the American Art-Union, 1848, pp. 19-20. Noble, Louis Legrand, The Course of Empire, Voyage of life, and Other Pictures of Thomas Cole, N. A., With Selections from his Letters and Miscellaneous Writings: Illustrative of his Life, Character, and Genius, New York: Cornish, Lamport & Company, 1853, n.p. Stillman, W. J. & Durand, J. Eds., "The Artists of America," The Crayon, Vol. VII, No. 2, February 1860, pp. 45-6. Hone, Philip, The Diary of Philip Hone 1828-1851, New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1889, p. 236. Durand, John, The Life and Times of Asher B. Durand, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1894; Reprint, Hensonville, NY: Black Dome Press, 2007), p. 124. Caffin, Charles H., The Story of American Painting: The Evolution of Painting in America from Colonial Times to the Present, New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1907, pp. 66, 69-70. Mather, Frank Jewett, Morey, Charles Rufus, and Henderson, William James, The Pageant of America: The American Spirit in Art, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927, p. 43. Isham, Samuel, The History of American Painting, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1936, pp. 225-6. Sweet, Frederick A. "Asher B. Durand, Pioneer, American Landscape Painter," The Art Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2, Spring, 1945, pp. 141, 153. Howe, Winifred E., A History of the Metropolitan Museum of Art with a Chapter on the Early Institutions of Art in New York. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946, pp. 62-7 Thomas Cole: One Hundred Years Later, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT 1948, pp. 10-1. Tunnard, Christopher, "Reflections on the Course of Empire and other Architectural Fantasies of Thomas Cole, N.A.," The Architectural Review, Vol. 104, December 1948, pp. 291-294. Davidson, Marshall, "Whither the Course of Empire?" American Heritage, October 1957, pp. 52-5, 58-61, 104. Flexner, James Thomas, That Wilder Image: The Painting of America's Native School from Thomas Cole to Winslow Homer, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962, pp. 49-58, 108, 354. McCoubrey, John, American Tradition in Painting, New York: G. Braziller, 1963, p. 65. Exhibition at Kennedy Galleries, New York, 1964, pp. 14, 26-7. Noble, Louis Legrand, The Life and Works of Thomas Cole, Hensonville, New York: Black Dome Press, 1964, pp. 103, 112, 129-131, 149-50, 155, 157-9, 164-74, 264, 268, 287. Wallach, Alan P., "The Origins of Thomas Cole's 'Course of Empire,'" M.A. Thesis, Columbia University, 1965. Lawall, David B., Asher Brown Durand: His Art and Art Theory in Relation to His Times, PhD Dissertation, Princeton, 1966, pp. 170-92, 288-9. Callow, James T., Kindred Spirits: Knickerbocker Writers and American Artists, 1807-1855, Durham, North Carolina, The University of North Carolina Press, 1967, p. 157. Annual II: Studies on Thomas Cole, An American Romanticist, Baltimore, Maryland: Baltimore Museum of Art, 1967, pp. 72-4. Wallach, Alan P., "Cole, Byron, and the Course of Empire," The Art Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 4, December 1968, pp. 375-9. Dunlap, William, A History of the Rise and Progress of The Arts of Design in the United States, A Reprint of the Original 1834 Edition with a New Introduction by James Thomas Flexner, Vol. 2, Part 2, New York: Dover Publications, 1969, p. 366. Baur, John I. H., The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge 1820-1910, New York: Arno Press, 1969, pp. 40-1. Parry, Elwood, Thomas Cole's "The Course of Empire:" A Study in Serial Imagery, PhD Dissertation, Yale, 1970, pp. 254-60. Glassie, Henry H., "Thomas Cole and Niagara Falls," The New-York Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. LVIII, No. 2, April 1974, p. 89. Novak, Barbara, "The Double-Edged Axe," Art in America, Vol. 64, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1976, pp. 44-50. New York State Museum, New York: The State of Art, Albany, New York: The New York State Museum, 1977, pp. 25, 30-1, and exhibition catalog, Mann, Maybelle, The American Art-Union, Jupiter FL: ALM Associates, c. 1977, pp. 15-7. Davidson, Abraham A., The Eccentrics and Other American Visionary Painters, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978, pp. 16-9, 138. Lynes, Russell, "Luman Reed: A New York Patron," Apollo, Vol. 107, No. 192, 1978, pp. 124-9. Cikovsky Jr., Nicolai, "'The Ravages of the Axe:" The Meaning of the Tree Stump in Nineteenth-Century American Art," The Art Bulletin, Vol. 61, No. 4, Dec., 1979, pp. 611-26. Craven, Wayne, "Luman Reed, patron: His Collection and Gallery," The American Art Journal, Vol. XII,, Spring 1980, pp. 43, 45, 50-6. Parry III, Ellwood C., "Thomas Cole's Ideas for Mr. Reed's Doors," The American Art Journal, Vol. XII,, Summer 1980, pp. 33-45. Baigell, Matthew, Thomas Cole, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1981, pp. 16-9, 49-50, 52, 82. Treuttner, William H., "The Art of History: American Exploration and Discovery Scenes, 1840-1860," The American Art Journal, Vol. XIV, No. 1, Winter 1982, pp. 4-31. Kasson, Joy S., Artistic Voyagers: Europe and the American Imagination in the Works of Irving, Allston, Cole, Cooper and Hawthorne, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982, 84-90, 111-129. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New-York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 192-200. Tammenga, Michael J., The Beautiful, the Sublime, and The Picturesque: British Influences on American Landscape Painting, St. Louis Missouri: Washington University, 1984, p. 57. Maddox, Kenneth W., "Thomas Cole and the Railroad: Gentle Maledictions," Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1986, pp. 2-10. Kelly, Franklin, and Carr, Gerald L., The Early Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church, 1845-1854, Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum, 1987, p. 66. Menefee, Ellen Avitts, The Early Biblical Landscapes of Thomas Cole (1825-1829), Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI, 1987, p. 40, 80, 145. Miller, Angela, "Thomas Cole and Jacksonian America: The Course of Empire as Political Allegory," Prospects, Vol. 14, 1989, pp. 65-92. Powell, Earl A., Thomas Cole. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990, pp. 62-71, 184. Foshay, Ella M., Luman Reed's Picture Gallery: Pioneer Collection of American Art, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990, pp. 59-61, 130-40, 207-8. Platt, Susan, "Paradigms and Paradoxes: Nature, Morality, and Art in America," Art Journal, Vol. 51, No. 2, Summer 1992, pp. 82-88. Bryant II, William Cullen, Highlands Sketches: The Hudson River in the Eye of the Beholder, Mount Taurus Press, Nelsonville, New York: 1993, p. 13. Bailey, Brigitte, "The Protected Witness: Cole, Cooper, and the Tourist's View of the Italian Landscape," American Iconology: New Approaches to Nineteenth-Century Art and Literature, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993, pp. 92, 110. Daniels, Stephen, Fields of Vision: Landscape Imagery and National Identity in England and the United States, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1993, pp. 158-161. Robinson, Christine T., Guest Curator, Thomas Cole: Drawn to Nature, Albany, NY: Albany Institute of History & Art, 1993, pp. 34, 49-50, 52. Griffin, Randall C., "The Untrammeled Vision: Thomas Cole and the Dream of the Artist," Art Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2, Summer 1993, pp. 71. Nutty, Carolyn Sue Himelick, Joseph Harrison, Jr. (1810-1874): Philadelphia Art Collector, Vol. I, dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of Delaware in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Art History, Fall 1993, pp. 47-8. Caldwell, John and Roque, Oswaldo Rodriguez, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Vol. I, A Catalogue of Works by Artists Born by 1815, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994, pp. 459-61. Wallach, Alan, "Museums and Resistance to History," The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 21, 1994, pp. B3-5. Cooper, James F., Knights of the Brush: The Hudson River School and the Moral Landscape, New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1999, pp. 31, 45-8, 77, 80. Koja, Stephan, Ed. AMERICA: The New World in 19th-Century Painting, Munich: New York: Prestel, 1999, pp. 25-7, 215, 235. Goldfarb, Hilliard T., Hirschler, Erica E., Lears, T. J. Jackson, Sargeant: The Late Landscapes, Boston: University Press of New England, 1999, pp. 8-9. New-York Historical Society, Perspectives on the Collections of the New-York Historical Society, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 2000, p. 28-30. Georgi, Karen L., "Asher B. Durand's American Landscapes and the Nature of Representation," PhD Dissertation, Boston University, 2000, pp. 115-7. Bedell, Rebecca, The Anatomy of Nature: Geology & American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001, pp. 26, 29, 33, 36, 38-41, 45. Wilton, Andrew & Barringer, Tim, American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States 1820-1880, London: Tate, 2002, pp. 23-4, 46, 51-3, 87, 95-109. Belli, Gabriella, Giacomoni, Paola, Cavino, Anna Ottani, curators, Montagna: Arte, scienza, Mito da Durer a Warhol, Milano: Skira, 2003, pp. 189-201. Simon, Janice, "Impressed in Memory: John Frederick Kensett's Italian Scene," Classic Ground: Mid-Nineteenth Century American Painting and the Italian Encounter, Athens, Georgia: Georgia Museum of Art, 2004, pp. 51-69. Payne, Christine, and Vaughn, William, eds., English Accents: Interactions with British Art c. 1776-1853, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004, pp. 10, 246. Burgard, Timothy Anglin, Ed., "Thomas Cole, Prometheus Bound," Masterworks of American Painting at the De Young, San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2005, pp. 70-3, 483-4. Ramirez, Jan Seidler, "A History of the New-York Historical Society," The Magazine Antiques, January 2005, pp. 140-1. Vedder, Lee A., "Nineteenth-century American paintings," The Magazine Antiques, January, 2005, pp. 148-9. De Salvo, Donna and Norden, Linda, "Course of Empire: Waste and Retrieval," Course of Empire, Exhibition Publication for the United States Pavilion at the 51st International Art Exhibition of the Venice Biennale, June 12-November 6, 2005, n.p. McDaniel, Amy Ellis, "Works on Paper by Thomas Cole in the Detroit Institute of Arts," Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts, Vol. 80, No. ½, 2006, pp. 16-25. Keck, Michaela, Walking in the Wilderness: The Peripatetic Tradition in Nineteenth-Century American Literature and Painting, Heidelberg: Winter, 2006, pp. 71-3, 75, 77. Novak, Barbara, American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 47-8, 51, 54. Kornhauser, Elizabeth M., "The Hudson River School: Landscape Art in America, 1820-1870," America: Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo", Italy: Linea d'Ombra Libri, 2007, p. 28. Hirshler, Erica Eve, "Nineteenth Century American Painters in Italy's 'Great University of Art,'" America: Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo", Italy: Linea d'Ombra Libri, 2007, p. 75 Vedder, Lee A. "Nineteenth-century American paintings." The Magazine Antiques 167 (2005): 146-155. Bland, Bartholomew F. and Vookles, Laura L. The Panoramic River: The Hudson and the Thames. Yonkers: Hudson River Museum, 2013. Bland, Bartholomew F., et al. Industrial Sublime: Modernism and the Transformation of New York's Rivers, 1900-1940. Yonkers: Hudson River Museum, 2013.

Date End: 
1836
eMuseum Object ID: 
41597
Exclude from TMS update: 
OFF
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Classification: 
Collections: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
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Date: 
1805
Medium: 
Oil on linen
Dimensions: 
canvas: 28 x 23 1/2 in. ( 71.1 x 59.7 cm ) frame: 37 3/4 x 33 1/2 x 4 in. ( 95.9 x 85.1 x 10.2 cm )
Credit Line: 
Gift of Thomas Jefferson Bryan
Object Number: 
1867.306
Gallery Label: 
Rembrandt Peale first painted Jefferson in 1800 (oil at Peabody Institute, Baltimore). In 1805 he and his father, Charles Willson Peale, went to Washington where Rembrandt painted portraits of national celebrities to hang in their Philadelphia museum. When the Peale Museum was dispersed in 1854 this portrait was purchased by the subject's namesake, Thomas Jefferson Bryan, and subsequently given by him to The New-York Historical Society.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1805
eMuseum Object ID: 
41588
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Cayambe

Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
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Date: 
1858
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Canvas: 30 x 48 1/8 in. ( 76.2 x 122.2 cm ) Frame: 41 1/8 x 59 1/4 x 4 1/4 in. ( 104.5 x 150.5 x 10.8 cm )
Description: 
Landscape depicting the Cayambe, a volcano in Ecuador about 20, 000 feet high, on the line of the Equator; lush greenery with a pond in foreground; reflective river in middleground; stone pedestal in foreground on left; group of houses to far left; large volcano with mountain range in center; clear sky with traces of clouds.
Credit Line: 
The Robert L. Stuart Collection, the gift of his widow Mrs. Mary Stuart
Object Number: 
S-91
Marks: 
inscriptions: lower left: "F.E. Church/1858"
Gallery Label: 
Cayambe was commissioned at the apex of Church's career by the New York City refiner, Robert L. Stuart.
Bibliography: 
"Domestic Art Gossip," The Crayon, March 1858, pp. 87-8. "Painting at the Lenox Library," The Critic: a Weekly Review of Literature and the Arts (18865-1898), Feb. 25, 1893, Vol. 19, No. 591, p. 120. "Early American Landscape and Genre Painters Seen to Advantage in the Picture Galleries of the Public Library," The New York Times, Aug. 27, 1911, p. SM15. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, M. and M. Karolik Collection of American Paintings 1815 to 1865, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1949, pp. 162-4. National Collection of Fine Arts, Frederic Edwin Church. An Exhibition Organized by the National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 1966, pp. 10, 32. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, American Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA: Museum of Fine Arts, 1969, Vol. I, p. 213. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 179-80. Manthorne, Katherine, "The Quest for a Tropic Paradise: Palm Tree as Fact and Symbol in Latin American Landscape Imagery, 1850-1875," Art Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Winter 1984), pp. 374-82. Manthorne, Katherine, Creation & Renewal: Views of Cotopaxi by Frederic Edwin Church, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985, pp. 83-5. Manthorne, Katherine, Tropical Renaissance: North American artists exploring Latin America, 1839-1879, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989, pp. 100-104. Kelly, Franklin, Frederic Edwin Church, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989, pp. 5454-5, 92, 104-5. Avery, Kevin J., Church's Great Picture: The Heart of the Andes, New York, NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993, pp. 28-31. Blaugrund, Annette, The Tenth Street Studio Building: Artist-Entrepreneurs from the Hudson River School to the American Impressionists, Southampton, NY: The Parrish Art Museum, 1997, pp. 74, 95, 137. Vallano, Fabienne-Charlotte Oraezie, Alle radici dell'etica ambientale: pensiero sulla natura, wilderness e creativita artistica negli Stati Uniti del XIX secolo, Firenze, Italy, 1993, pp. 355-410. Troyen, Carol, Moore, Charlotte Emans, and Diamond, Priscilla Kate, American Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1997, n.p. Carr, Gerald L., In Search of the Promised Land: Paintings by Frederic Edwin Church, New York, NY: Berry-Hill Galleries, Inc., 2000, pp. 11-7, 61-75, 144, 191. Howat, John K., Frederic Church, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 54-6, 75-6. Viveros-Faune, Christian, "The Promised Land," New York Press, May 2000, n.p. Stevens, Mark, "A View with Some Room," New York Magazine (NYMag.com), May 15, 2000. Goodrich, John, "Frederic Edwin Church: In Search of the Promised Land," Reviewny.com, June 1, 2000. Belli, Gabriella, Giacomoni, Paola, Cavina, Anna Ottani, Curators, Montagna: arte, scienza, mito da Durer a Warhol, Milan, Italy: Skira, 2003, p. 357.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1858
eMuseum Object ID: 
41412
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Portrait of an Unidentified Woman

Classification: 
Collections: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
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Date: 
ca. 1700-1725
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall (canvas): 49 1/8 x 38 7/8 in. (124.8 x 98.7 cm) Frame: 57 1/4 x 46 7/16 x 1 in. (145.4 x 118 x 2.5 cm)
Credit Line: 
Purchase
Object Number: 
1952.80
Gallery Label: 
Typical of provincial British portraiture of the early eighteenth century, this rather curious portrait of a woman had long been identified as a likeness of Edward Hyde, who carried the title Viscount Cornbury and was appointed Governor of the Province of New York and New Jersey by his cousin, Queen Anne, in 1702. Serving as Governor until 1708, Lord Cornbury was reported to have been "universally detested," and a fondness for cross-dressing accompanied his reputation as "half-witted." Popular legend had it that the Governor discredited his office by publicly appearing in women's attire, strolling Broadway - even opening the Assembly - in his wife's clothes. Hyde is also said to have held his state levees at New York, and received his visitors dressed up in complete female court costume, because he represented the person of a female Sovereign, his cousin Queen Anne. Recent scholarship has both removed some of the blemishes added to Cornbury's gubernatorial abilities by nineteenth century detractors, and reclaimed the likeness as female. However the sitter's identity, like that of the artist who captured her straightforward gaze without softening her features for the sake of a beautiful picture, remains a mystery.
Bibliography: 
Patricia U. Bonomi, "The Lord Cornbury Scandal: The Politics of Reputation in British America" (University of North Carolina Press, 2000).
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1725
eMuseum Object ID: 
41409
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

View from Cozzen's Hotel Near West Point, N.Y.

Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Date: 
1863
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 20 x 34 in. ( 50.8 x 86.4 cm ) Frame: 31 1/2 x 45 1/2 x 3 1/2 in. ( 80 x 115.6 x 8.9 cm )
Credit Line: 
The Robert L. Stuart Collection, the gift of his widow Mrs. Mary Stuart
Object Number: 
S-189
Marks: 
signature and date: BC: JFK '63
Provenance: 
Robert L. Stuart, N.Y.C. (painted to order)
Bibliography: 
New York State Council on the Arts, Art in New York State: The River: Places and People, Buffalo: Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 1964, n.p. American Luminism: A Benefit for The Lighthouse, the New York Association for the Blind, New York: Coe Kerr Gallery, 1978, n.p. Wilmerding, John, Ed., American Light: The Luminist Movement 1850-1875, Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1980, pp. 39-40, 98, 114, 222, 261-2. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. II, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, p. 242. American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987, pp. 154-5. McCoubrey, John, American Tradition in Painting, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000, n.p. Trafton, Melissa Geisler, Critics, Collectors, and the Nineteenth-Century Taste for the Paintings of John Frederick Kensett, A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History of Art, University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2003, pp. 299, 431-2, 455.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1863
eMuseum Object ID: 
41087
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Negro Life at the South

Collections: 
Classification: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Highlight: 
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Date: 
1859
Medium: 
Oil on linen
Dimensions: 
frame: 51 x 61 x 5 in. ( 129.5 x 154.9 x 12.7 cm ) image: 37 x 46 in. ( 94 x 116.8 cm )
Description: 
Set in the back yard of a dilapidated house, a group of slaves passes the time. The composition includes several vignettes. At center is a banjo player; at his side, a little boy has halted his play to listen to the music. A woman and her two children listen and dance. At left is a courting couple and, above them, a woman and baby watch from an upstairs window. At far right, two young girls watch as an elegant white woman and her companion emerge for the grander house next door to see the activity.
Credit Line: 
The Robert L. Stuart Collection, the gift of his widow Mrs. Mary Stuart
Object Number: 
S-225
Gallery Label: 
This painting is Johnson's most famous work, and established his reputation as an artist. Though originally exhibited at the National Academy in April 1859 as Negro Life at the South, it was by 1867 popularly called Old Kentucky Home with a title taken from Stephen Foster's beloved song. He most likely began his work on this painting in 1858, and the setting was the backyard of his father's house in Washington, D.C. The white woman at right has been identified as Johnson's sister.
Bibliography: 
"Sketchings. Domestic Art Gossip," The Crayon, Vol. VI, January 1859, p, 25. "Thirty-Fourth Exhibition of the Academy of Design," New York Evening Post, April 25, 1854, n.p. "Fine Arts. National Academy of Design. First Notice," The Albion, Vol. 37, No. 19, May 7, 1859, p. 225. "National Academy of Design," New York Herald, May 8, 1859, n.p. "Sketchings. Domestic Art Gossip," The Crayon, Vol. VI, April 1859, p, 125. "Sketchings. Domestic Art Gossip," The Crayon, Vol. VI, May 1859, p, 125. "The Lounger. At the Academy Again," Harper's Weekly, Vol. 3, No. 124, May 14, 1859, p. 307 "The National Academy Exhibition," New York Semi-Weekly Tribune, May 24, 1859, p. 3. "National Academy Exhibition," Cosmopolitan Art Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 1859, p. 307. "Editor's Easy Chair," Harper's Weekly, Vol. 3, June 1859, p. 126. The Crayon, Vol. VI, June 1859, p. 191. "Fine Arts," Home Journal, June 18, 1859, p. 2. "Fine Arts," Dwight's Journal of Music," September 3, 1859, p. 181. "Domestic Art Gossip," The Crayon, Vol. VII, June 1860, p, 176. "Artists' Reception for the Benefit of the Brooklyn and Long Island Fair," New York Daily Tribune, February 19, 1984, p. 2. Tuckerman, Henry T., Book of the Artists, American Artist Life, Comprising Biographical and Critical Sketches of American Artists: Preceded by an Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of Art in America, New York: P. Putnam & Son, 1867, pp. 466-71. "Fine Arts," New York Times, February 2, 1867, n.p. "American Artists," Harper's Weekly, Vol. 11, May 4, 1867, p. 274. "The Great Show at Paris," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, June/Nov, 1867, pp. 238-53. Catalogue of the Valuable Collection of Oil Paintings Formerly the Private Collection of W.P. Wright, Esq., of New Jersey, Now on View at H.W. Derby's New Art Rooms, 845 Broadway, New York, to be Positively Sold at Public Auction by Henry H. Leeds & Miner, at half past 7 o'clock, on the Evening of Monday, March 18th, 1867, New York: Henry H. Leeds & Miner, 1867, p. 13. "Fine Arts. The Wright-Derby Collection," The Evening Post, January 30, 1867, n.p. Rimmel, Eugene, Recollections of the Paris Exhibition of 18867 by Eugene Rimmel, London: Chapman and Hall, 1868, pp. 265-6. "Paintings at the Centennial Exhibition," The Art Journal, Vol. 2, 1876, pp. 283-5. "A Representative American," The Magazine of Art, Vol. 5, November 1882, p. 487. Walton, William, "Eastman Johnson, Painter," Scribner's Magazine, September 1906, pp. 263-74. Ishamn, Samuel, The History of American Painting, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1936, pp. 241-3. "American Art Comes of Age," Life Magazine, Vol. 5, October 31, 1938, pp. 27-38. Baur, John I.H., An American Genre Painter Eastman Johnson 1824-1906, New York: Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 1940, pp. 17-8. Barker, Virgil, American Painting: History and Interpretation, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950, pp, 609-10. Larkin, Oliver W., Art and Life in America, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960, pp. 221-2. Bauer, John I.H., Ed., The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge 1820-1910, New York: Arno Press, 1969, pp. 54-5. Ames, Kenneth, "Eastman Johnson: The Failure of a Successful Artist," Art Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1969/1970 Winter, pp. 174-83. Lynes, Russell, The Art-Makers of Nineteenth-Century America, New York: Atheneum, 1970, pp. 259-66. Hills, Patricia, Eastman Johnson, New York: Crown Publishers, 1972, pp. 32-9, 119. Rose, Barbara, "Family Entertainment," New York, Vol. 5, May 8, 1973, pp. 723-4. Parry, Ellwood, The Image of the Indian and the Black Man in American Art 1590-1900, New York: George Braziller, 1974, pp. 101-2. Honor, Hugh, The Image of the Black in Western Art, Vol. IV, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976, pp. 20-1, 187-8, 217-20, 244, 338, 341. Hills, Patricia, The Genre Painting of Eastman Johnson: The Sources and Development of His Style and Themes, New York Garland Publishing, Inc., 1977, pp. 55-60. Fox, James Edward, Iconography of the Black in American Art (1710-1900), A Dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Art History, 1979, pp. 198-207, 214-5. Cary, John H, Weinberg, Julius, Eds., The Social Fabric: American Life from 1607 to the Civil War, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1981, Cover. Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. II, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 232-4. Troyen, Carol, Innocents Abroad: American Painters at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, Paris, American Art Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4, Autumn 1984, pp. 3-29. Beckham, Sue Bridwell, "By 'N By Hard Times. . . Eastman Johnson's 'Life at the South' and American Minstrelsy," Journal of American Culture, Vol. 6, Fall 1988, pp. 19-25. Boime, Albert, The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth Century, Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990, pp. 106-21, 228-33. Johns, Elizabeth, American Genre Painting: The Politics of Everyday Life, New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1990, pp. 127-31, 233. McElroy, Guy C., Facing History: the Black image in American art, 1710-1940, Washington and Brooklyn: Bedford Arts and Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1990.p. 55. Martin, Nona R., Negro Life at the South: Eastman Johnson's Rendition of Slavery and Miscegenation, Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Art History, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, University of Pittsburgh, 1994, pp. iii-viii. 1-33. Malson, Lucien, Histoire de Jazz et de la Musique Afro-Americaine, Paris: Seuil, 1994, p. 28-9. Eisenman, Stephen F., Nineteenth Century Art: A Cricital History, London: Burlington Magazine, London: Thames and Hudson, 1994, p. 168. Hoffman, Katherine, Concepts of Identity: Historical and Contemporary Images and Portraits of Self and Family, New York: Icon Editions, 1996, pp. 61-3. Glazer, Lee, and Key, Susan, "Carry Me Back: Nostalgia for the Old South in the Nineteenth-Century Popular Culture, Journal of American Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1, The American Past and Popular Culture, April 1996, pp. 1-24. Martin, Nona, "Civil War Symbolism," Carnegie Magazine, January/February 1997, pp. 32-5. Gordon, Avery F., Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1997, pp. 137-9. Morse, P.J., The Art Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 4, December 1998, p. 759. Richman, Jeffrey I., Brooklyn's Green-Wood Cemetery: New York's Buried Treasure, Brooklyn: The Green-Wood Cemetery, 1998, pp. 61-3. Davis, John, "Eastman Johnson's 'Negro Life at the South' and urban slavery in Washington, D.C.¸ Art Bulletin, March 1998, pp. 1-55. Carbone, Teresa A. and Hills, Patricia, et al., Eastman Johnson: Painting America, New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art in association with Rizzoli International Publications, 1999, pp.121-65. Carbone, Teresa A. and Hills, Patricia, et al., Eastman Johnson: Painting America: A Guide to the Civil War Era Paintings, New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art in association with Rizzoli International Publications, 1999, 1 folded sheet. Levey, Bob and Levey, Jane Freundel, Washington Album: A Pictorial History of the Nation's Capital, Washington, DC: Washington Post Books, 2000, p. 40. Museum News, Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum of Art, January/February 2000, p. 20-1. Savidou-Terrono, Evdokia, For "The Boys in Blue": The Art Galleries of the Sanitary Fairs, A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Art History in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, the City University of New York, New York, NY, 2002, pp. 635, 638. Harris, Michael D., Colored Pictures: Race and Visual Representation, Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003, pp. 39-51, 262-3. Burgard, Timothy Anglin, Ed., "Thomas Cole, Prometheus Bound," Masterworks of American Painting at the De Young, San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2005, pp. 146-9. Davis, John, "Change of Key: The Banjo During the Civil War and Reconstruction, Picturing the Banjo, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005, pp. 49-67, 68-9. Vedder, Lee A., "Nineteenth-century American paintings," The Magazine Antiques, January 2005, pp. 146-55. Hills, Patricia, "Cultural Racism: Resistance and Accommodation in the Civil War Art of Eastman Johnson and Thomas Nast," Seeing High & Low: Representing Social Conflict in American Visual Culture, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2006, 103-17, 120-3. Brilliant, Richard, Group Dynamics: Family Portraits & Scenes of Everyday Life at the New-York Historical Society, New York, NY: The New-York Historical Society in association with The New Press, 2006, pp. 56-7. Gold, Susanna W., "Recovering Identity Nineteenth-Century African American Portraiture," American Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 4, December 2006, pp. 1167-89. Leja, Michael, "Paradoxes in American Art," Art in America: 300 Years of Innovation, New York, NY: Guggenheim Museum, 2007, pp. 27, 194-5. Morgan, Jo-Ann, Uncle Tom's Cabin: As Visual Culture, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2007, pp. 16, 112-4, 139-42, 171-3. Walker, Kara, Kara Walker: My Complement, My Enemy, My Oppressor, My Love, Minneapolis, MN: Walker Art Center, 2007, n.p. Fine American Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture: Thursday 25 September 2008, New York, NY: Christies, 2008, p. 7. McInnis, Maurie D., "The Most Famous Plantation of All: The Politics of Painting Mount Vernon," Landscape of Slavery: The Plantation in American Art, Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, 2008, pp. 105-9, 113-4. Miller, Angela L, Berlo, Janet C., Wolf, Bryan J., Roberts, Jennifer L., American Encounters: Art, History, and Cultural Identity, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008, pp. 267-8. Bjelajac, David, American Art: A cultural History, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008, pp. 219-20. Weinberg, H. Barbara, and Barratt, Carrie Rebora, Eds., American Stories: Paintings of Everyday Life 1765-1915, New York, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009, pp. 70-3, 77, 109. Braddock, Alan C., Thomas Eakins and the Cultures of Modernity, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009, pp. 19-21. Finseth, Ian Frederick, Shades of Green: Visions of Nature in the Literature of American Slavery, 1770-1860, Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 2009, pp. 238-45, 258, 284-5, 332-5. Burns, Sara, and Davis, John, American Art to 1900: A Documentary History, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009, pp. 343-7. Holzer, Harold and The New-York Historical Society. "The Civil War in 50 Objects." New York: Viking, 2013.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1859
eMuseum Object ID: 
41060
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. (1820-1857)

Classification: 
Collections: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Highlight: 
Display this item in the highlights
Date: 
1858
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
canvas: 42 x 51 in. ( 106.7 x 129.5 cm ) frame: 49 x 58 in. ( 124.5 x 147.3 cm )
Credit Line: 
Gift of several ladies of New York
Object Number: 
1859.1
Marks: 
Signed and dated lower left: T. Hicks / 1858
Gallery Label: 
Dr. Kane, famous Arctic explorer, was born in Philadelphia to John Kintzing Kane and Jane Duval (Leiper) Kane. His world travels began with his assignments to medical missions in China and in Africa. He served in the Mexican War in which he was wounded and contracted typhus, but by 1850 he had returned to duty with an expedition sent to the Arctic to search for a missing British explorer. The story of this journey is told in "The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin" (1853).
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1858
eMuseum Object ID: 
41034
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Ki On Twog Ky (also known as Cornplanter ) (1732/40-1836)

Classification: 
Collections: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Date: 
1796
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Canvas: 30 x 25 in. ( 76.2 x 63.5 cm )Frame: 44 3/4 x 39 15/16 x 5 in. (113.7 x 101.4 x 12.7 cm)
Description: 

Bust-length portrait of a ranking Native American chief of the Seneca tribe wearing a silver medal around his neck, a pair of silver armbands, a plumed headdress, nose and ear rings, and a scarlet shroud around his shoulders. He holds across his chest, in his right hand, a smoking pipe, adorned with feathers.

Credit Line: 
Gift of Thomas Jefferson Bryan
Object Number: 
1867.314
Marks: 
signed and dated: at right: "F. Bartoli. / New York. / 1796"
Gallery Label: 

The portrait commemorates Cornplanter's May 1786 meeting with the U.S. Congress in New York, which signaled the establishment of peaceful relations between the Seneca chief and the young republic. He wears the regalia presented to him by the "Council of the Thirteen Fires." In addition to bestowing these gifts, Congress gave Cornplanter assurances that both the British and Americans wanted peace with the Native Americans and would respect the boundaries of land assigned to them by treaty. According to documented genealogy on the Abeel family presented by Louise Williamson Brooks, a family descendent, Cornplanter was born around 1742, one of eight children of Johannes (John) Abeel (baptized April 8, 1722) and the Indian princess Aliquipiso of the Turtle Clan of the Seneca Tribe, whom he met as a fur trader among the Six Nations. Cornplanter died in 1836 on Cornplanter Island in the Allegheny River.

Bibliography: 

Wettenkampf, Frank, "How Indians were Pictured in Earlier Days," The New-York Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 33, no. 4, October 1949, p. 217. Catalogue of American Portraits in The New-York Historical Society, New Haven: Yale University Press, Vol. I, 1974, p. 427. Ledes, Allison Eckhardt Ledes, "Current and coming," The Magazine Antiques, January 2005, p. 16.

Date End: 
1796
eMuseum Object ID: 
40589
Exclude from TMS update: 
OFF
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

Undutiful Boys

Classification: 
Collections: 
Is owned by NYHS: 
Yes
Highlight: 
Display this item in the highlights
Date: 
1835
Medium: 
Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 
Overall: 24 x 30 in. ( 61 x 76.2 cm ) Framed: 34 in. × 40 in. × 4 1/2 in. (86.4 × 101.6 × 11.4 cm)
Credit Line: 
Gift of The New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts
Object Number: 
1858.23
Marks: 
Signature and date: at lower right: WM. S. MOUNT / 1835
Gallery Label: 
Like Farmer's Bargaining (N-YHS 1858.59), Undutiful Boys, Mount's second picture for the New York art collector, Luman Reed, was painted outdoors on the Mount farm in Stony Brook, New York. The scene features four young truant gamblers who have abandoned their farm chores and are gathered in a circle "hustling coppers," or pennies, on the floor in Mount's barn. Approaching from the left, an elder farmer, who has presumably been hard at work, seems determined to punish the truant boys with the switch in his right hand. As in Farmer's Bargaining, Mount's faithful depiction of the ambiance and details of country life was no doubt enhanced by his childhood experience as a farmer boy and his long residence in a farming community. Undutiful Boys should also be seen in the context of a larger national trend to celebrate American rural life and childhood. The majority of Mount's contemporaries, including Reed, had grown up in farming communities. Moreover, the veneration of the farmer reached new heights in the Era of Jacksonian Democracy, particularly as the country began to shift from an agrarian nation to a more industrial one. For Reed, who had moved from the Hudson River town of Coxsackie to New York City in 1815, Mount's painting of rural farmers would have served as a nostalgic reminder of his origins. Reed is reported to have paid $220.00 for the picture.
Provenance: 
New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts, 1844-58 Mrs. Luman Reed, New York, 1836-44 Luman Reed, d. 1836
Bibliography: 
Vedder, Lee A. "Nineteenth-century American paintings." The Magazine Antiques 167 (2005): 146-155.
Date Begin: 
0
Date End: 
1835
eMuseum Object ID: 
38458
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.

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